kails

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See also: kaīls

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *kail-, from *koil-, the o-grade (plus an extra -l) of Proto-Indo-European *kei-, *skei- (to cut, to divide, to separate). For the meaning change, compare Ancient Greek δέρω (dérō, to skin, to flay), δέρμα (dérma, skin), then from “skin” to “bare, naked.” Cognates include Lithuanian káilis (skin).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Adjective[edit]

kails (def. kailais, comp. kailāks, sup. viskailākais; adv. kaili)

  1. naked, nude, bare (without clothes on)
    kails bērnsnaked child
    kailas kājasbare feet
    izģērbties kailam — to strip naked
  2. bald (without hair)
    kails galvvidusbald crown (of head)
  3. (about trees, bushes, plants) without leaves, without further growth (branches, twigs, bark)
    lapu koki kļuvuši kaili — the leaf trees have become bald, leafless
    tur tad cauri ūdenim redzēja pelēku, kailu stumbru — then there through the water they saw a gray, naked trunk
  4. without plants, without plant life, vegetation; without trees or plants nearby
    saules staros izdegusi kaila zeme — earth burned naked by sun rays
    kailas ēkasnaked buildings (without green areas)
    kaili mūrinaked walls
  5. (about winter) without, or with little, snow
    kaila ziemabald (i.e., snowless) winter
  6. (about rooms, spaces) naked (without or with little furniture; without comfort)
    kaila grīdanaked floor (not covered)
    vakarā pa krēslu viņa skatījās kailās, netīras istabas — in the evening, (sitting) on the chair, she looked at the naked, dirty rooms
  7. (about places, areas) undeveloped
    viņiem taču te būs jāsāk kailā vietā — but they will have to start (their carrers) here, in this naked place
  8. bare (by itself, without anything in addition to it)
    mēs esam spiestas pārtikt no kailās cietuma devas — we are forced to live on bare prison food
  9. bald (without justification or evidence; inconclusive)
    kails apgalvojumsbald (= unfounded) assertion
  10. naked (without explanation, without illustrative material)
    kaili fakti, skaitļinaked facts, figures
  11. naked (thinly disguised, or undisguised; easy to see or read)
    kails egoismsnaked selfishness
    kaila nabadzībanaked poverty

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “kails” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7