From Proto-Baltic *kal- with a suffix -no, from Proto-Indo-European *kel, *kol (“to raise, to lift, to build”), whence also Latvian celt. The meaning of celt was originally not only “to lift,” but also “to be high”, whence the meaning of kalns. This word was also sometimes used in the past to mean “building, construction,” especially tall ones in large estates. Cognates include Lithuanian kálnas, Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐌻𐌻𐌿𐍃 (hallus, “rock, cliff”) (< *kolnus), Old English holm (“hill, knoll”) (< Proto-Germanic *kl̥mo), German Holm (“islet”), Ancient Greek κολωνός (kolōnós), Latin collis (“knoll, hill”) (< *colnis).
kalns m (1st declension)
- ^ “kalns” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7