likums

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See also: līkums

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From likt (to put, to place) +‎ -ums. The original meaning was probably “that which is placed, put,” later on (in the 17th century) “task, order, command.” The current legal meaning arose only in the early 19th century. Compare German Gesetz (law), from setzen (to put, to place).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

likums m (1st declension)

  1. law (mandatory rule approved and applied by the government)
    pieņemt likumu — to adopt a law
    likumprojekts, likuma projekts — bill, draft of law
    meža aizsardzības likumi — forest protection laws
    pēc likuma, saskaņa ar likumu — according to the law
    rīkoties likuma vārdā — to act on behalf of, in the name of the law
    izdot likumus — to produce laws, to legislate
    pārkāpt likumu — to violate the law
    likuma burts — the letter of the law
  2. law (traditional or accepted rule or norm)
    pieklājības likumi — the laws of decency
    viņš tika svētīt pēc visiem tēvutēvu likumiem — he was blessed by all the laws of (our) father's father(s)
  3. (in science) law (essential relation between phenomena that describes their future evolution)
    izzināt likumu — to find the law
    specifisks likums — specific law
    dabas likumslaw of nature, natural law
    universāls, objektīvs likums — universal, objective law
    likuma darbības sfēra — the sphere of action (i.e., the scope) of a law
    komutatīvais likums — commutative law (in mathematics, x+y = y+x)
  4. (of a topic of learning) law, rule, principle
    pareizrakstības likumi — spelling rules
    stundām no vietas skolotājs dīdīja puikām vācu un latīņu gramatikas likumus — for hours the teacher drilled the boys in the laws, rules of German and Latin grammar

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “likums” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7