mazs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *maž, from Proto-Indo-European *meǵʰ-, *moǵʰ- (big, small, i.e., size extremes)). Cognates include Lithuanian mãžas, Sudovian maz, Old Prussian massais ([mazais], smaller), Scythian maz(a) (big), Gothic 𐌼𐌰𐌲𐌿𐍃 (magus, boy (i.e., little)), Old English micel (large, big, great) (English much), Albanian madh (big), Old Armenian մեծ (mec, great, large), Sanskrit मह (mahá, great, mighty, strong, abundant), Old Irish maige (great, large), Ancient Greek μέγας (mégas, big, large), Latin magnus (big).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

mazs (def. mazais, comp. mazāks, sup. vismazākais; irreg. adv. maz)

  1. small, little (having less than the (average, fitting) size of other similar objects, beings, areas, etc.)
    mazs cilvēks, dzīvnieks, galdssmall person, animal, table
    mazas kājassmall feet, legs
    cepure par mazu — a hat too small
    mazais sikspārnis — the small bat (smaller than other species)
    maza pļavasmall meadow
    mazs ciematssmall village
  2. small, short (having less than the (average) distance between start and end points)
    mazs atvēziens, palēcienssmall swing, jump
    maza amplitūdasmall amplitude
  3. (of natural phenomena) small, little, low (weak, having low intensity)
    mazs vējiņšsmall, little breeze
    maza miglalow fog
  4. (of physical phenomena) small, short, low, weak (less in numerical value than (the average of) other measurements; less intense, faint)
    mazs ātrums, spriegumslow speed, tension/voltage
    mazs garumsshort length
    mazs skaitssmall number
    mazs skaitlislow figure
    maza nauda — (colloquial) mall money sum (lit. little money)
    bet lai tu vairs neizlaistu pat vismazākās skaņas! — but you won't let out even the smallest (= faintest) sound anymore!
  5. (of time periods; of texts) little, short
    pēc maza brīža — after a short moment
    mazs dzejolislittle, short poem
  6. small (with few members (people, animals, objects, elements))
    maza ģimenesmall family
    mazs ganāmpulkssmall herd
  7. little, low (less than the normal or average level, limit, degree)
    mazs piena izlaukumslow milk yield
    maza barības vērtībalittle, low nutritional value
  8. little, small (with little influence or consequence; not worth much)
    mazas nepatikšanaslittle, small trouble
    saņemt mazas veltes — to get small presents
  9. small, short (not requiring much effort or energy)
    mazs pasākumssmall undertaking, enterprise
    maza pastaigashort walk, stroll
    mazi svētkismall, unimportant holidays
    small, little (indicating lack of freedom of action, constraints)
    mazas priekšrocībassmall advantage
    maza izvēlelittle choice
    man vairs nebija ne mazākās iespējas novākt slepenā darba pēdas — I no longer had the slightest possibility of removing the traces of secret work
  10. (of mental or physical states) small (not intense, not intensely felt)
    mazas' sāpessmall pain
    mazs nogurumssmall fatigue, tiredness
    (of people) small (selfish; having negative character traits)
    mazs nekauņa — a little impudent, impertinent person
    mazs palaidnis — a little rascal
    liels zinātnieks; tikai kā cilvēks diemžēl izrādījies mazs — a great scientist; only as a person, unfortunately, he showed himself small
  11. (of people) small (lacking self-confidence, humble)
    jutos maza un niecīga viņu priekšā — I (female) felt small and insignificant in front of them
  12. (of people) small (unimportant; not owning much property; poor)
    mazs muižnieks, namīpašniekssmall landlord
  13. (of children) small, little, young (infant, not having reached maturity)
    mazs bērnssmall child
    Ilzi es jau pazinu kā mazu meitenīti — Ilze I already knew as a little girl
    mazā kaut ko gaida — the little one (= girl) is waiting for something
    mazais jāliek gulēt — the little one (= boy) must be put to sleep
  14. small (not brilliant, not important, not significant)
    ir atzinumi lieli, mazi — opinions there are big and small
    laiks aizšalc, aiznesdams izzūdībai visu mazo, niecīgo, nenozīmīgo — time rustles (by), taking into non-existence all that is small, unimportant, insignificant

Declension[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “mazs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7