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(index pa)


  • IPA(key): [ˈpɑkːɑnen]
  • Hyphenation: pak‧ka‧nen


Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia fi


  1. Frost, as sub-zero temperature of ambient air.
    On kymmenen astetta pakkasta.
    The temperature is ten degrees below zero.
    Pakkanen kiristyy.
    It's getting colder. / The frost is getting worse.
    Talvella 1985–86 oli Suomessa kovat pakkaset.
    The winter of 1985–86 was very cold in Finland.
  2. (colloquial) In the adessive case, financially "in the red".
    Yhtiön tulos on vahvasti pakkasella.
    The company is heavily in the red.


Inflection of pakkanen (Kotus type 38/nainen, no gradation)
nominative pakkanen pakkaset
genitive pakkasen pakkasten
partitive pakkasta pakkasia
illative pakkaseen pakkasiin
singular plural
nominative pakkanen pakkaset
accusative nom.? pakkanen pakkaset
gen. pakkasen
genitive pakkasen pakkasten
partitive pakkasta pakkasia
inessive pakkasessa pakkasissa
elative pakkasesta pakkasista
illative pakkaseen pakkasiin
adessive pakkasella pakkasilla
ablative pakkaselta pakkasilta
allative pakkaselleˣ pakkasilleˣ
essive pakkasena pakkasina
translative pakkaseksi pakkasiksi
instructive pakkasin
abessive pakkasetta pakkasitta
comitative pakkasineen

Derived terms[edit]