patskanis

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Latvian[edit]

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 Patskanis on Latvian Wikipedia

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Patskaņi

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From pats (self) +‎ skan(ēt) (to sound), made into a 2nd-declension noun (ending -is). A calque of German Selbstlaut (vowel) coined by A. Kronvalds in the 1860s (initially as pašskanis). It competed with, and eventually replaced, other coinages such as G. F. Stenders' skandinieks, K. Biezbārdis' skanis, or A. Stērste's balsskanis. There was some variation (patskanis, pašskaņa, patskaņa) until the early 20th century. After J. Endzelīns' and K. Mīlenbahs' 1907 Latviešu Gramatika, the form patskanis stabilized. It became accepted as a standard linguistic term in the 1920s.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

patskanis m (2nd declension)

  1. (phonetics, phonology) vowel (language sound pronounced with little or no restriction of the oral cavity, usually with the participation of the vocal cords)
    uzsvērti un neuzsvērti patskaņi — stressed and unstressed vowels
    garie un īsie patskaņi — long and short vowels
    patskaņu klasifikācijavowel classification
    šaurais patskanis (“e” vai “ē”) — narrow, tense vowel (“e” or “ē”, pronounced as IPA [ɛ])
    platais patskanis (“e” vai “ē”) — broad, lax vowel (“e” or “ē”, pronounced as IPA [æ])
    ritma, lāpāmais patskanis — rhythmic vowel (added for prosodic or metric reasons)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “patskanis” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7