pilns

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Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *pilˀnas, from Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₁nós, from *pleh₁-, *pl̥- (to pour, to flow; to heap, to fill) (with an adjectivizing suffix -no-), the same stem as pildīt (to fill) (q.v.). The original meaning was thus “poured,” “flowed,” “heaped,” from which “filled.” Cognates include Lithuanian pìlnas, Old Prussian pilnan (whole) (singular accusative), erpilninaiti (fill it!) (imperative 2nd person plural), Old Church Slavonic пльнъ (plĭnŭ), плънъ (plŭnŭ, full), Russian по́лный (pólnyj), Proto-Germanic *fulla- (< *fulna- < *pulna-; Gothic 𐍆𐌿𐌻𐌻𐍃 (fulls), German voll, English full), Sanskrit पूर्ण (pūrṇá, filled, full) (< *pūlna- < *pl̥-no-), Latin plēnus (full; strong, satiated).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

pilns (def. pilnais, comp. pilnāks, sup. vispilnākais; irreg. adv. pilnam, pilnām)

  1. (of containers) full (without any space left)
    pilna bļoda — full bowl
    pilna kanna ar pienu — pot full of milk
    piebērt pilnus grozus ar kartupeļiem — to load baskets full of potatoes
    piesmelt pilnu spaini ar ūdeni — to draw a full bucket of water
  2. (of spaces, rooms) full (completely occupied)
    pilns skapis ar drēbēm — a wardrobe full of clothes
    pilns penālis ar zīmuļiem — a pencil case full of pencils
    piekraut pilnu šķūni ar sienu — to load a barn full of hay
  3. (of flat objects) full (with completely occupied surface; with many thing on its surface)
    pilns galdsfull table (with food, drinks, etc.)
    zeme piebirusi pilna ar āboliem — the earth was covered full of apples
    piebārstīt pilnu grīdu ar skaidām — to scatter sawdust all over the floor
  4. (of paper, books, etc.) full (completely written, drawn over; with many writings, drawings)
    pierakstīt pilnu kladi ar lekcijām — to fill a notebook (= to write it full) with lectures
    burtnīca pilna ar stundu plāniem — a notebook full of lesson plans
    grāmata pilna ar krāsainiem zīmējumiem — a book full of colorful illustrations
  5. (of places, objects) full (with many people, animals, plants, objects; with all available places occupied; where some substance has spread)
    pilns veikals ar pircējiem — a shop full of customers
    ielas pilnas turistu — streets full of tourists
    ļaužu pilnas ielas — streets full of people
    autobuss pilns ar pasažieriem — a bus full of passengers
    strops pilns ar bitēm — a hive full of bees
    pilns parks ar vāverem — a park full of squirrels
    purvs pilns odu — a swamp full of mosquitoes
    pilns dārzs ar ābelēm — a garden full of apple trees
    šogad meži pilni sēņu — this year the forests (are) full of mushrooms
    noliekt riekstu pilnu lazdas zaru — to tilt, to bend a hazel branch full of nuts
    virtuve pilna ar dūmiem — a kitchen full of smoke
    pagalms pilns ar bērnu čalām — a yard full of children's chatter
  6. (of substances) full (with considerable admixture of something else)
    graudi pilni pelavām — grains full of chaff
    kaļķi pilni ar smiltīm — lime filled with sand
    duļķu pilns ūdens — water full of mud
  7. (of natural phenomena) full (where something occurs or is formed in large quantites)
    ieleja pilna ar biezu miglu — a valley full of thick mist
    zeme pilna valgmes — land full of moisture, humidity
    ceļi pilni ar dubļiem — roads full of mud
  8. (of processes, activities) full (where some intense activity occurs, characterized by some intense activity)
    istaba ir rosības pilna — the room is full of activity, of hustle and bustle
    grūtību pilns ceļojums — a trip full of difficulties, hardships
    gaidu pilnas stundas — hours full of waiting
    pārdzīvot laimes pilnus mirkļus — to live, experience moments full of happiness, bliss
    optimisma pilns romāns — a novel full of optimism
  9. (of people or their actions) full (feeling, possessing some mental feature very intensely)
    prieka pilns bērns — a child full of joy
    pārliecības pilns cilvēks — a person full of confidence
    spēka pilns jauneklis — a young man full of strength
    pārliecības pilna rīcība — an action full of confidence
    neizpratnes pilna seja — a face full of incomprehension
    naida pilns skatiens — a look full of hate
    prieka pilns sauciens — a cry full of joy
  10. (of qualities, means; usually in locative) full (at the highest intensity, at the highest level of development)
    braukt pilnā ātrumā — to drive at full speed
    pilna slodzefull-time
    pilnā jaudā, ar pilnu jaudu — at full capacity, with all strength
    runāt, dziedāt, kliegt pilnā balsī — to speak, sing, shout at full voice
    pilnā kaujas gatavībā — in full combat readiness
    rudzi ir pilnā briedumā — the rye is in full maturity
  11. (of plans, books, courses, teams) full, complete, whole, entire (covering the whole set, extension; having all parts; )
    pilns apmācību kurssfull training course
    noklausīties pilnu lekciju ciklu — to listen to the full lecture series
    pilna biogrāfijafull biography
    pilns komplekts — a full, complete set
    pilns lidmašīnas personālsastāvsfull flight personnel
    hokeja komanda spēlē pilnā sastavā — the hockey team plays in its full composition (= the full team, the whole team)
  12. (of amounts, measurements) full, whole, complete (corresponding exactly to the given value)
    nostrādāt pilnu darba nedēļu — to work two full work weeks
    sasniegt pilnus astoņpadsmit gadus — to reach, to achieve full eighteen years (of age)
  13. (of circles, lines, time periods) full, continuous, uninterrupted
    pilns apgrieziensfull, complete rotation
    darba tika pabeigti tikai pilnā naktī — the work was finished only in (= after) a full night
  14. (of body, body parts) full ( relatively large, stout)
    miesās pilns cilvēks — a full-bodied (= large, stout) person
    sieviete ar pilnām lūpām — a woman with full lips
  15. (colloquial, of people) full, very drunk
    daži tik pilni, ka streipuļoja — some (of the people) so full (= drunk) that they staggered

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “pilns” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7