From Middle Englishquil, which is first attested in the early 15th century with the meanings "fragment of reed" and "shaft of a feather." Cognate to (and probably derived from) Low Germanquiele (compare Middle High Germankil (“large feather, quill”), which is derived from the Low German term), further etymology is unknown.
The "porcupine spike" meaning was first attested in the early 17th century.
Then one of my dogs got quilled, and it happened again a month later. After putting the dog in a headlock, yanking out several dozen quills, and spurting blood all over myself and the decking of the back porch, I at least understood his antiporcupine venom.
Nibs never would have quilled a seriph to sheepskin.
1976, Ed Sanders, Investigative Poetry, City Lights (1976), page 11:
One has only to recall that Coleridge and Wordsworth one day were lounging by the sea shore, while nearby sat an English police agent on snitch patrol prepared to rush to headquarters to quill a report about the conversation.
2007, David J. Wishart, Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Indians, University of Nebraska Press (2007), ISBN 0-8032-9862-5, page 32:
Another characteristic of Plains Indians was the fairly strict division between art made and used by men and art made and used by women. Although men and women sometimes cooperated, women usually painted or quilled very balanced, controlled geometric designs on dresses, moccasins, robes, bags, and containers.