rice

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English[edit]

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Unpolished rice (grains of Oryza sativa).

Etymology[edit]

Middle English rys, from Old French ris, from Old Italian riso, risi, from Byzantine Greek ὄρυζα (óryza), ὄρυζον (óryzon). This is usually held to be a borrowing from Old Iranian (cf. Old Persian brizi, Pashto wrižē, Kurdish birinc), in turn probably borrowed from Sanskrit व्रीहि (vrīhí). The Sanskrit term is either a loan from Dravidian – compare Proto-Dravidian *wariñci (rice) – or, according to Witzel, borrowed from an unknown South Asian, possibly Austroasiatic, source, with the Dravidian word being an independent borrowing of another variant.[1] Old Tamil அரிசி (arici), from earlier *ariki, is not the source of the Greek word, however, according to Krishnamurti (2003) apud Witzel (2009).[2] In contrast, Witzel (1999) had maintained, following Southworth (1979), that the Greek term goes back to Old Tamil arici – itself from an older form *ariki, an early (ca. 1500 BC) borrowing from Munda according to Southworth (1988).[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rice (plural rices)

  1. (uncountable) Cereal plants, Oryza sativa of the grass family whose seeds are used as food.
  2. A specific variety of this plant.
  3. (uncountable) The seeds of this plant used as food.

Translations[edit]

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Verb[edit]

rice (third-person singular simple present rices, present participle ricing, simple past and past participle riced)

  1. To squeeze through a ricer; to mash or make into rice-sized pieces.
  2. To throw rice at a person (usually at a wedding).
  3. To belittle a government emissary or similar on behalf of a more powerful militaristic state.
  4. To harvest wild rice Zinzania sp.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Witzel 1999, p. 27
  2. ^ Witzel 2009, p. 25
  3. ^ Witzel 1999, p. 26

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Proto-Germanic *rīkijaz (mighty), *rīkiją (authority), from Proto-Celtic *rīgiom (kingdom), from *rīxs (king) (compare Irish ), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵs (king). Cognates include Old Saxon rīki, Dutch rijk, Old High German rīhhi (German Reich, reich), Old Norse ríki noun, ríkr adj (Swedish rike noun, rik adj), Gothic 𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐌹 (reiki) noun, 𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐌴𐌹𐍃 (reikeis) adj. The Indo-European root is also the source of Latin rex.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rīċe n

  1. power, authority, dominion
  2. kingdom, empire
    • Cotton MS Tiberus B.i, Maxims II
      Cyning sceal rice healdan.
      Ceastra beoð feorran gesyne [...]
      The king shall hold a kingdom.
      Cities will be seen from afar [...]

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rīċe

  1. powerful, mighty; rich

Descendants[edit]


Old French[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rice m, f

  1. (Picardy) Alternative form of riche.

Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

rice

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of rizar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of rizar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of rizar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of rizar.