rupjš

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Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (dialectal form) rups

Etymology[edit]

From an earlier adjective *rupus (yielding two parallel forms, a yo-stem form that became standard rupjš and an o-stem form that yielded the dialectal variant rups), from Proto-Indo-European *rewp-, *rūp-, *rup- (to pull, to tear, to break) (from the *rewp- form comes the adjective raupjš, q.v.), from the stem *rew- (to peel, to pluck, to dig). The semantic evolution was probably “to pluck, to tear (e.g., wool, feathers)” > (adj.) “uneven, harsh” (skin, after removing wool, feathers) > “coarse, harsh.” Cognates include Lithuanian rupùs, Serbo-Croatian rȕpa (hole, pit), Old Norse rjúfa (to break, to tear), rauf (cracks, holes), reyfi (shorn wool; uneven, harsh skin), Middle High German rubbelig (uneven, harsh, coarse), Latin rumpere (to break).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

rupjš (def. rupjais, comp. rupjāks, sup. visrupjākais; adv. rupji)

  1. (of mixtures, powder-like substances) coarse, rough (with elements having a relatively large cross section)
    rupja smilts, grantscoarse sand, gravel
    rupji putraimi, milticoarse grits, flour
    rupjais sālscoarse salt
    rupjas aveņu ogasrough raspberries
    rupjas zvīņascoarse (fish) scales
    rupja maize, rupjmaize — rye bread, brown bread (lit. coarse bread)
  2. (of nets, meshes) coarse (having relatively large holes)
    rupjš siets, tīklscoarse sieve, net
  3. (of files) rough (having on its surface relatively wide, deep grooves)
    rupja vīle, rupjvīlerough file
  4. (of thread, yarn, hair, fur, also cloth) coarse, thick (having a relatively large cross-section; made of thread, yarn having a relatively large cross-section)
    rupjš diegscoarse, thick thread
    rupja dzijacoarse, thick yarn
    rupja vilnacoarse wool
    rupja adatacoarse needle
    rupjš linu audums — scrim (lit. coarse linen) cloth
    rupjš maiss, krekls, galdautscoarse bag, shirt, tablecloth
    rupjas zeķes coarse socks
    noslaucīties rupjā dvielī — to dry oneself with (lit. in) a coarse towel
    aļņa ķermenis klāts ar biezu, rupju apmatojumu — an elk's body is covered with thick, coarse hair
  5. (of grains) coarse, rough (composed of elements having a relatively large cross-section)
    rupja maluma miltirough, coarse grist flour (i.e., flour which contains chaff)
  6. (of skin, surfaces) rough, harsh, unpolished; having bumps and dents on its surface
    rokas man rupjas no darba — my hands are harsh from work
    rupjš, pelēks papīrsharsh, gray paper
    rupjais apmetumscoarse, harsh plaster
    aligators klāts ar rupju, grumbuļainu ādu — the alligator is covered by a harsh, rugged skin
  7. (of objects) rough, not refined, not well designed, not completed, of low quality
    šis rupjais dēļu šķirsts — that rough, coarse wooden chest
    rupjais cirtumsrough cutting, roughly cut surface
  8. (of sounds) coarse, hollow, low
    rupji smieklicoarse laughter
    rupja balsscoarse, hollow, low voice
    rupjš, rejošs klepuscoarse, barking cough
  9. (of people, their behavior) rude, offensive, tactless, tough, violent; expressing such features
    Grīslis bija rupjš, nesaticīgs vīrs — Grīslis was a rude, irritable man
    rupjš joksrude joke
    rupjš izteiciensharsh language
    rupja muteharsh, rude mouth
    rupji vārdiharsh, rude words
    rupjš cīņas paņēmienstough, violent fighting technique
    rupja, netaktiska izturēšanāsrude, tactless behavior
  10. (of errors, irregularities, etc.) gross, big (which deviates strongly from the truth, from accepted norms, etc.)
    rupja kļūdagross, big mistake, blunder
    rupjš disciplīnas pārkāpumsbig breach of discipline
    rupjš apmelojumsgross, shameless calumny, slander
    ticēt rupjiem meliem — to believe gross, big lies
  11. (of work) harsh, tough (physical, heavy and repetitive)
    rupjais darbsharsh, tough work

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “rupjš” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7