skaļš

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See also: skals, skäls, and skåls

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From an earlier verb *skelt with ablaut of the stem vowel, from Proto-Baltic *skel-, from Proto-Indo-European *skel-, from *kel- (to call, to shout, to make noise, to sound) with an extra s-mobile. The rarely attested sense of “easy to chop” comes from an unrelated, homophonous adjective mostly lost in the standard language; cf. skaldīt (to chop). Cognates include Lithuanian skalùs (sonorous; loud; such that it (dog) barks often), Lithuanian skãlyti (to bark; to roar, to yell; to whine) (considered by some a borrowing from Polish), Russian скулить (skulít’, to whine), Czech skoliti (to bark repeatedly), Polish skolić (to whine), Old Norse skjalla (to sound, to ring, to hit noisily), skella (to make noise, to scold, to quarrel, to laugh noisily), skjallr (loud), skal (noise), Old High German scellan, German schallen (to sound).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

skaļš (def. skaļais, comp. skaļāks, sup. visskaļākais; adv. skaļi)

  1. (of sounds, sound sources) loud (relatively strong; producing sounds at a relatively high volume)
    skaļš kliedziensloud shout, scream
    skaļi smiekliloud laughter
    skaļa mūzikaloud music
    skaļa rūkoņaloud roar
    skaļi soļiloud steps
    skaļš radiouztvērējsloud radio set
    uzgriezt radio par skaļu — to turn the radio too loud
    motoru troksnis kļuva skaļāks — the motor noise became louder
    mēs tikko esam piesēdušies pie brokasta galda, kad atskan skaļš zvans un istabā iebrūk Kirils ar milzīgu mugursomu — we had just sat down at the breakfast table when a loud bell rang and Kirils entered the room with a huge backpack
  2. (of places, time periods) loud, noisy (where, when there is noise, sound at a relatively high volume)
    skaļš mežsnoisy forest
    skaļa ielanoisy street (because of traffic noise)
    skaļš rītsnoisy morning
    istaba tika arvien skaļāka, sarunas raibākas un vaļīgākas — the room became increasingly louder, noisier, the conversations more mixed and more open
  3. (of people) loud, noisy (who often speaks, laughs, etc. at a high volume, with a strong voice)
    skaļs puisisnoisy, loud boy
    skaļas meitenesnoisy, loud girls
    sevišķi skaļš viņu vidū bija tievais un garais seminārists... viņa balss aizvien skanēja pāri visām — among them, the thin, tall seminarist was particularly loud... his voice always sounded above all others
  4. (of animals) loud (who often produces intense, sounds, usually with its voice)
    klusumu prātrauca meža balsis; visskaļākie bija strazdi — the voices of the forest interrupted the silence; the sterlings were the loudest (ones)
  5. (figuratively, of people) loud, effusive (trying to attract attention, to stand out)
    vieniem mākslinieks kā režijā, tā aktiermākslā šķiet eleganti apburošs, citiem - pārāk skaļš un drusku ārišķīgs — to some, the artist, both in directing and in acting, seems elegantly charming; to others - too loud and a little ostentatious
  6. loud, noisy, strong, intense (associated with intense external signs)
    skaļš prieksloud (= intense) joy
    skaļa jautrībaloud (= intense) cheerfulness
    vakars izvērtās skaļš un jautrs; nevienam nebija garlaicīgi — the evening turned out to be noisy and cheerful; nobody felt bored
  7. (of colors) loud, intense; showing strong contrasts
    skaļas krāsasloud colors
  8. (of words, ideas) loud (said openly, not hidden; said with intensity, strongly (and usually not justified)
    skaļas frāzesloud expressions
    skaļus vārdus vējš izmētā; klusie iesēžas atmiņāloud words are scattered (by) the wind; quiet (ones) remain in memory
  9. loud, impressive (attracting attention)
    māja ir ļoti lepna... kāds advokāts to cēlis sev, cerēdams uz skaļām, ienesīgām prāvām — the house was very proud (= imposing)... some lawyer built it, hoping for loud, lucrative cases
  10. (rare, of wood, trees) easy to split, to chop
    ja malka bija laba, skaļa, tad skali plīsa paši no sevis — if the wood was good, easy to chop, then the slivers split (off) almost by themselves

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “skaļš” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7