tīrs

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: tirs

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the past tense stem *tīr- of an earlier verb *tirt (to rub), from Proto-Baltic *tir-, from the zero grade *tr̥- of Proto-Indo-European *ter- (to rub, to rub by turning, twisting; to turn, to drill), whence also Latvian trīt (to whet), and also Russian тереть (teret', to rub, to scrub), dialectal тирать (tirat'). Cognates include Lithuanian tyrùs (bright, light, clean; fresh; without vegetation, empty).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Headset icon.svg This entry needs audio files. If you have a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)

Adjective[edit]

tīrs (def. tīrais, comp. tīrāks, sup. vistīrākais; adv. tīri)

  1. (of objects) clean (which is not dirty, has no stains, no undesirable substances, etc.)
    tīrs apģērbs, galdautsclean clothing, tablecloth
    tīra glāzeclean glass
    tīra grīdaclean floor
    tīra istabaclean room
    tīrs ciematsclean village
    Kārlis nolēma uzklāt gultai tīrus palagus — Kārlis decided to put clean sheets on the bed
    lai turētu mājas arvien tīras, lapas sagrāba un sakrāva orēs — in order to keep the house(s) always clean, he gathered all the leaves and shoveled them into carts
  2. (of living beings, their bodies) clean (such that it has no dirt, stains, etc. on any body part, clothes, etc.)
    tīras rokasclean hands
    tīri maticlean hair
    tīrs sunsclean dog
    strēlnieki dzied klusu, sejas tīras, skūtas — the riflemen sing quiently, (their) faces clean, shaven
    kaķis ir vienmēr vientuļš apdzīvotā mājā, vienmēr skaists un tīrs — the cat is always lonely in an inhabited house, always nice and clean
  3. (of substances) pure, clean (not containing any unnecessary or undesirable impurities)
    tīrs zeltspure gold
    tīrs parafīnspure paraffin
    tīrs mālspure clay
    ķīmiski tīrs benzols — chemically pure benzene
    tīrs ūdens, gaissclean water, air
    ūdens silts un tīrs; katru akmentiņu un lielāku smilšu graudu var skaidri cauri redzēt — the water is warm and clean; every little stone or larger grain of sand can be clearly seen through (it)
  4. (of technology) clean (such that it does not pollute the environment)
    jauniem enerģijas avotiem jāatbilst divām pamatprasībām: tiem jābūt spēcīgiem un ekoloģiski tīriem — new energy sources must meet two basic requirements: they must be powerful and ecologically clean
  5. clean, empty, clear (in which something is not; which is not filled with, taken by, something; from which something was removed)
    no nezālēm tīra augsne — soil clean of weeds
    tīrā papuve — the clean fallow (= with no crops)
    tīra papīra lapaclean, empty page (= with nothing written on it)
    tīra tāfeleclean, empty blackboard
    tīrs audeklsclean, empty canvas
    debesis bija tīras, neviena mākonīša — the sky was clear, not a single little cloud
  6. (of money, resources) net (calculated by excluding certain component elements)
    tīrais ienākumsnet income
    tīrais laiksnet time
    tīrā produkcijanet production
    vecais aprēķināja, ka saņēmis trīspadsmit latus un deviņdesmit vienu santīmu un, ja atskaitīja ceļa naudu, tad tīrā peļņa tik un tā iznāca vairāk nekā divpadsmit latu — the old man calculated that, having received thirty lats and ninety-one cents, if one deducts the travel money, then the net profit would come to more than twentyt lats
  7. (of living beings) pure (such that no other species are involved in its origin)
    tīras koku un krūmu sugaspure tree and shrub species
    tīras rasespure races
    tīras vietējās bitespure local bees
    tīras asinispure blood (e.g., horse)
  8. (of people) pure, genuine, real (such that no other ethnic or social group, no other kinds of people are involved in a person's origin)
    tīrs latvietis — a pure, genuine Latvian
    tīrs aristokrāts — a pure, genuine aristocrat
    tīrs pilsētnieks — a real, genuine city person
  9. (of topics) pure (existing by itself, without depending on others; not applied, not used for some goal outside of itself)
    tīrā matemātikapure mathematics
    tīrā zinātnepure science
    tīrā mākslapure art
  10. clean, pure, perfect (fully meeting a certain set of requirements, criteria, ideals, etc.)
    tīrs tonispure tone
    tīrs soprāns — pure soprano
    baltu gaismu sadalot spektrā, iegūst tīrās spektrālās krāsas — splitting white light into a spectrum, one obtains pure spectral colors
    Annas Sakses valoda bija vicaur gramatiski pareiza, tīra un labskanīga — Anna Sakse's language was grammatically correct, pure and well-sounding throughout
    tie bija jauni cilvēki, ar labu apņemšanos, tīrām biogrāfijām un teicamiem raksturojumiem — these were young people, comitted to good, with clean, pure biographies and excellent characters
    nav brīnums, ka jūsu mājā jaunā paaudze runā tīru latviešu valodu — no wonder that the young generation in your house speaks pure Latvian
  11. (of people, their behavior) pure, innocent (which corresponds consistently to certain moral norms or ideals)
    tīra sirdsapziņa — a clean conscience
    tīra dzīve — a clean, pure life
    tīras jūtaspure, innocent feelings
    tīrs priekspure, innocent joy
    tīra dvēselepure, innocent soul
    tīra sirdspure heart
    domāju par Anitu, kāda viņa bija tad, kad tu viņu atvedi pie mums: tāda tīra, skaidra kā bērns — I thought about Anita as she was when you brought her to us; pure and clear (= innocent) as a child
    tādai vajag būt mīlestībai: tīrai; lai nav ko kaunēties — such love should be: pure; so that there is nothing to be ashamed of
    viņas smiekli ir tik tīri kā bērnam — her laugh is as pure as a child's
    ja es vēl ilgāk klusēšu, spēle vairs nebūs tīra, Sala domāja — if I keep silent any longer, the game will not be clean (= honest) anymore
  12. (usually definite forms) pure, sheer, perfect (which has all the relevant features and characteristics of its type)
    tīrā patiesība — the pure, sheer, naked truth
    tīrā laimepure, sheer happiness
    tīrā nejaušībasheer coincidence
    tīrās muļķībaspure, utter nonsense, stupidity
    “jūs vēl esat tik jauniņa”, viņš sacīja, “vēl tīrais bērns” — you are still so young, he said, still just (lit. a pure) child

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “tīrs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7