trūkt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *trūk-, from the same Proto-Indo-European stem *trewk-, *trūk- as Latvian traukt (to rush, to speed, to sweep) (q.v.). Cognates include Lithuanian trū́kti. Corresponding to the older meaning of traukt: “to jerk, to pull, to pluck,” the meaning of trūkt was at first “to be pulled, plucked,” and then “to break, to creak, to split (off)” — still an extant, albeit unfrequent, meaning, and also the basis of the meaning of many derived verbs: iztrūkt (to come off (knob, button)), notrūkt (to come, tear off), pārtrūkt (to break, to burst, to snap), satrūkties (to start, to jump), uztrūkties (to start) —, and finally “to not be there, to be less (than necessary), to lack,” which is the basis for pietrūkt (to be, run short of), iztrūkums (deficit, shortage).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

trūkt intr. + dat., 1st conj., only 3rd personpres. trūkst, past trūka

  1. to lack, to be in short supply, to not be available
    trūkst laika, naudas — there is little or no time, money
    trūkst telputhere is little or no space
    darba netrūkstthere is no lack of work
    mums netrūkst nekā — we lack nothing
    telpā trūkst gaisa — in the room there is little or no air
    slimniekam trūkst elpas — the patient is short of breath
    uzturā trūkst vitamīnu — in (this) diet vitamins are lacking
  2. (of body parts) to lack (to have lost, amputated)
    tēva labajai rokai trūka divu pirkstu — (my) father's right hand lacked two fingers
    Kristam trūka rokas līdz elkonim — Krists lacked an arm (up) to the elbow
  3. (of qualities, forces, knowledge) to lack, to not be enough
    par to mums trūkst ziņu — we lack, have no news about that
    meitenei trūkst izglītības — the girl lacks education
    aktierim trūkst talanta — the actor lacks talent
    viņam trūkst pašapziņas, izdomas — he lacks self-confidence, ingenuity
    viņam trūkst drosmes atzīties — he lacks the courage to confess
    viņam trūkst pieredzes, zināšanu, meistarības — he lacks experience, knowledge, skill
    viņam trūkst vārdu, lai izteiktu savu sajūsmu — he lacks, has no words to express his delight
  4. to miss, to be absent, to not be there
    klasē trūkst divu skolēnu — in class two students are missing
    plauktā trūkst dažu grāmatu — some books are missing on the shelf
    pie viņas bija vecā krustmāte, bija Marta, bija Aina, Vilma; trūka vienīgi Artūrs — at her (house) were (her) old godmother, Marta, Aina, Vilma; only Artūrs was missing
    ja manis kur trūkst un tas trūkums netiek nomanīts, tad tas man pašam vislabāk, ka manis tur trūkst — if I am absent somewhere and this absence is not noticed, then it is better to me that I am absent there
    tos trūkstošos trīsdesmit vai četrdesmit miljonus viņi man labprāt piešķirs — the missing thirty or forty million they will give me willingly
  5. to miss, to suffer because of the absence (of someone, something)
    ziedu un rūpju vidū man tevis trūks — among the flowers and the concerns, I will miss you
    Augusts uzreiz sajuta, ka viņam trūkst sievas — Augusts immediately felt that he was missing his wife
  6. (of ropes, threads, lines, etc., often together with the adverb in two, asunder, apart, torn) to snap, to split in two parts under tension
    virve trūkst pušu — the rope snaps
    pavediens mezglojas un trūkst — the wire gets entangled and snaps
    savītas stieples tik ātri netrūks — (inter)twined, wound wires won't snap so fast
    dzimtas sakari trūkst ka pakulu pavedieni — family ties snap like tow fibers

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Normally used in the third person, this verb takes at most two complements: in the genitive, that which is lacking; and, in the dative, the entity that lacks it. Man trūkst laika — I(dat.) lack, have no time(gen.).

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

References[edit]

  1. ^ “trūkt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7