tukšs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *teus-, *tus- (to empty), from *teu-, *tu- (to swell) (whence also Latvian tūkt (to swell), q.v.). The sequence suggests irregular changes: *tus-k-, *tus-t- (with suffixes -k, -t) → *tuskya-, *tustya-, which then merge as *tusktya-*tuks(t)ya (metathesis) → tukša-. Semantic development: “swollen, bloated” → “empty inside” → “empty.” Cognates include Lithuanian tùščias (nominative plural tuštì), Old Church Slavonic тъшть (tŭštǐ, empty), Old East Slavic тъщь (tŭščǐ), Russian тощий (tóščij, weak, thin, lean), Proto-Slavic *tъska (emptiness) (Russian тоска (toská, anguish, tedium, longing)), Sanskrit तुच्छः (túcchyáḥ, empty, vain), Latin tesqua (desert) (< *tueskuā), Ossetian туссæг (tussæg, tyssæg).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

tukšs (def. tukšais, comp. tukšāks, sup. vistukšākais; adv. tukši)

  1. (of containers, hollow objects) empty (in which nothing was put)
    tukša bļoda, pudele, soma, atvilktneempty bowl, bottle, bag, drawer
    tukšs grozs, maiss, spainisempty basket, bag, bucket
    tukša kabataempty pocket (colloquially, lack of money)
  2. (of places, areas) empty, blank (not taken, not filled with something)
    tukšs pagrabs, plauktsempty cellar, shelf
    tukša malkas nojumeempty wood shed
    tukšs sienas laukumsempty, blank area on the wall
    tukšs galdsempty table (esp. without food, drink)
  3. (of rooms) unfurnished
    tukša istabaempty room
  4. (of hanging supports) empty (with nothing hanging on them)
    tukšs drēbju pakaramaisempty clothes hanger
    tukšs vadzisempty peg
  5. (of windows, doors) empty (without panes, leaves)
    tukšas logu ailesempty window frames
  6. (of wells, bodies of water) empty (without water)
    tukša akaempty well
  7. (stomach) empty (without food)
    tukšs vēdersempty stomach
  8. (of paper, book) empty (without any writing or drawing on it)
    Ēvalds pagrieza baltajai lapiņai otru pusi, tā bija tukša — Ēvalds turned the white page over to the other side, it was empty
  9. (of buildings, rooms, areas, means of transportation) empty (without people, animals; vacant, uninhabited)
    tukša iela, šoseja, laivaempty street, highway, ship
    tukšs trolejbuss, vagonsempty trolley, train car
    tukšs bišu stropsempty beehiļve
    tukša lapsu alaempty fox hole, earth
    (of places to sit, stand, etc.) empty (vacant)
    mēs visi sēdam pie galda, tikai mātes vieta tukša — we all sat at the table, only mother's place (was) empty
  10. (of places, areas) empty (without vegetation, without plants, without crops)
    visi tīrumi ir tukši — all fields are empty
    zeme nekur nepaliek tukša, augi ieviešas katrā piemērotā' stūrītī — the earth is nowere empty, plants grow in every appropriate spot
  11. (of fruits, nuts) empty (without pit, kernel, seed, more rarely without leaves)
    tukšs riekstsempty nut
    tukša zirņu pākstsempty pea pod
  12. (of time periods) empty (with strongly felt shortage or lack of food, money, goods, etc.))
    tagard ir tukškais laiks; nav ne gaļas, ne naudas — now is the emptier (= emptiest) time: there is neither meat nor money
  13. (of time periods) empty (without harvest, produce)
    šogad manām ābelēm ir tukšais gads — this year my apple trees are having an empty (= fruitless) year
  14. (of shops, establishments, entities) empty (without merchandise, goods in stock; without money)
    tukšs pārtikas veikalsempty grocery store (i.e., without groceries)
    Prūsijas valsts kase bija tukša — the Prussian treasury was empty
    šīs mājas ir tukšas, viss, kas te kādreiz bija, ir jau paņemts — these houses are empty, everything that used to be here has already been taken
  15. (of peoples) empty, poor
    kur citur lai šie atstātie, tukšie, bezspēcīgie atrastu patversmi? — where else would the abandoned, empty, powerless find shelter?
  16. (of actionss) empty, in vain (without the desired effect)
    tukši pūliņiempty efforts
  17. (of actions, words) empty, vain, idle (without serious content, without purpose, without meaning, significance)
    tukšas runas, tukša runāšanaempty talk, empty talking
    tukšas frāzesempty sentences, words
    tukšas izpriecas, cerībasempty pleasures, hopes
    tukši sapņiempty dreams
    tukšs apgalvojumsempty statement
  18. (of time periods) empty (without activity, uneventful)
    tukšs, bezdarbībā pavadīts laiksempty, idly spent time
  19. (of people) empty (without depth, meaningful spiritual life; frivolous)
    nožēlojami tukša dvēsele — a miserably empty soul
    vieglprātīgas, tukšas meitenes portrets — portrait of a frivolous, empty girl
  20. (of eyes, gaze, face) empty (colorless, lifeless)
    skumji tukšs skatiens — sadly empty gaze
    lai cik skaista, bet tukša seja vienmēr būs vulgāra — no matter how beautiful, an empty face will always be vulgar

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “tukšs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7