viens

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French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

viens

  1. first-person singular present indicative of venir
  2. second-person singular present indicative of venir
  3. second-person singular imperative of venir

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *eynos (with ey > ie metathesis; note that some 17th-century some Kurzeme and Zemgale dialects still had some forms with ey), from a Proto-Indo-European *éyno-, éynos, from *éy, *óy (he, it) (non-Baltic cognates derive from *óy; compare Proto-Indo-European *óynos (one)) with a suffix *-no, which originally had an adjectival meaning. The Eastern Baltic cognates (unlike Old Prussian have an initial v, which suggests an intermediate Eastern Baltic form *weynos. This initial *w may result from sporadic word-initial consonant-joining phenomena, or from a possible particle *w-, *we-. Cognates of viens include Lithuanian víenas, Old Prussian ains, Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (ains), German eins, English one, Old Irish oín, Ancient Greek οἰνός (oinós, one (when throwing dice)), Latin ūnus (< *oinos). From the form *eynos comes also Proto-Slavic *inъ, *edinъ, *edьnъ (one) (Old Church Slavonic ѥдинъ (jedinŭ), ѥдьнъ (jedinŭ, jedĭnŭ), Ukrainian, Russian один (odín), Belarusian адзін (adzín), Bulgarian един (edín), Czech, Polish jeden.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Latvian cardinal numbers
0 1 2
    Cardinal : viens
    Ordinal : pirmais
    Nominal : vieninieks
Latvian Wikipedia article on viens
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Numeral[edit]

viens

  1. one (the cipher, the cardinal number one)
    pieci un viens ir seši — five and one is six
    no diviem atņemt vienu — to subtract one from two
  2. one (an amount equal to one)
    viens galds, zimulisone table, pencil
    viena tonnaone ton
    viens kilograms, litrs, metrsone kilo, liter, meter
    vieni vārti, svārki, ratione gate, skirt, cart
    vienas mājas, biksesone home, one pair of pants
    pirms viena gadaone year ago
    nosvērt vienu kilogramu sviesta — to weigh one kilo of butter
  3. one o'clock (a moment in time; one hour after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir viens — it is one o'clock
    pulkstenis ir pāri vieniem — it is past one o'clock
    no vieniem līdz diviem — from one to two o'clock
    vilciens pienāk vienos — the train arrives at one o'clock
  4. (arithmetic, used as a noun) one, unit (the digit in the last position in a number)
    saskaitīt vienus ar vieniem, desmitus ar desmitiem — to add the ones with the ones, the tens with the tens
  5. (used as a noun) one (person, thing, event, action)
    visi par vienu, viens par visiem — all for one and one for all
    visi kā viens — all as one
    viens, kas man rūp, ir laika trūkumsone (thing) I care about is the lack of time
    runāt vienu, bet darīt (ko) citu — to say one (thing) and do another
    viena dziedāja, otra spēlējaone (girl) is drawing, the other is playing
  6. one, a certain (marking indefiniteness)
    vienā jaukā dienā — (in) one nice, fine day
    tur jūs viens gaidaone (person) is waiting for you there
  7. the same (indicating identity, sameness)
    viens un tas pats — one and the same
    atkārtot vienu un to pašu — to repeat the same thing
    vienā laikā — at the same time
    vienā ritmā — in the same rhythm
    būt vienos gados — to be of the same age
    abi domāja vienu domu — both are thinking the same thought
    viena lieluma priekšmeti — objects of the same size
  8. alone, by oneself, without the help of others
    viens pats, viena pati — alone by himself, alone by herself
    viņš dzivo gluži viens — he lives completely alone
    mēs ar brāli palikām vieni — I stayed alone with my brother
  9. (with otrs) one or other, some, a few (people, objects, events)
    viens otrs to apšaubaa few (people) doubt it.
    vienā otrā' gadījumā, vietā — ín a few cases, places
  10. (with otrs, in different cases) each other, one another (indicating mutual relations, influence)
    cienīt vienam otru — to respect each other
    viņi tuliņ pazina viens otru — they immediately recognized each other
    viņi palīdz viens otram — they help each other
    iet viens aiz otra — to go one after another
    labi izturēties vienam pret otram — to treat each other well
  11. (with no) one of the... (member of a certain group)
    viņš ir viens no labākajiem mūsdienu rakstniekiem — he is one of the best contemporary writers
    tas ir viens no tiem gadījumiem, kas liek padomāt — this is one of those cases that make one think
    viens no diviem - jā vai nē — either yes or no (lit. one of two (options): yes or no)
  12. one, in one (indicating continuity, lack of interruption)
    zirgs ir vienās putās — the horse is in a lather, agitated
    māja stāv vienās liesmās — the house is in one flame (= aflame, in flames, on fire)
    runāt vienā gabalā — to speak in one piece (= without interruption)
    dzīvot vienās bailēs — to live in one fear (= constantly in fear)
  13. one, one really... (used to intensify the meaning)
    viņš ir viens kārtīgs cilvēks — he is one (really) neat person
    ak tu viens palaidni! — oh you (are) one mischievous (person)!
    tā mūsu Beņa ir gan viena! ko tik viņa sadomā, to izdara, lai vai kas... — our Beņa is really one (woman)! whatever she fancies, she does, no matter what...

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Usually, only the singular forms of viens are used; the plural forms only occur with plural-only words (“pluralia tantum“). Also, in time expressions, the singular viens is used in “it is one o'clock,” but the plural form vieniem is used with postpositions (note also the simple locative plural form vienos “at one o'clock”).

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “viens” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7