ziema

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See also: ziemā, žiema, and žiemą

Latvian[edit]

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 Ziema on Latvian Wikipedia

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Ziema

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *źeimāˀ[1], from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰéy-m-, *ǵʰi-m- (winter; snow). Some researches suggest that this stem may have originally meant “(cold) rain period” (cf. Hittite gimmanza (winter), he(y)u (rain) and Sanskrit हेमन्तः (hemantáḥ, winter), हिमः (himaḥ, cold, frost, snow)). Cognates include Lithuanian žiemà, Old Prussian semo ([zemo]), Old Church Slavonic зима (zima), Russian зима (zimá), Belarusian зіма (zimá), Ukrainian зима (zymá), зіма (zimá), Bulgarian зима (zíma), Czech, Polish zima, Sanskrit हेमन्तः (hemantáḥ, winter), Ancient Greek χεῖμα (kheîma), Latin hiems, Ossetian зям (zjam).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

ziema f (4th declension)

  1. winter (season of the year between autumn and spring, from December 23 to March 22 in the Northern Hemisphere, characterized by the lowest yearly temperatures)
    auksta, barga ziema — cold, harsh winter
    maiga ziema — mild winter
    bezsniega zeima — snowless winter
    iestājas ziema'winter has begun
    ziemas vakarswinter evening, night
    nākamajā ziemā — (in) next winter
    dziļa ziemadeep winter (i.e., with a lot of snow)
    ziemas saulgriežiwinter solstice
    pēc garās ziemas, kas bija sākusies novembrī un vēl aprīlī negribēja aiziet, atnāca pavasaris, jo nav tādas ziemas, kurai reiz nesekotu pavasaris — after a long winter that had started in November and in April still didn't want to go, came spring, because there is no such thing as winter which is not followed by spring
  2. (in the genetive, used adjectivally) winter, typical of winter, used in winter
    Ziemassvētki — Christmas (lit. winter holiday, festival)
    ziemas dārzswinter garden (a room for plants in the house)
    ziemas guļa — hibernation (lit. winter sleep)
    ziemas sportswinter sports
    ziemas olimpiskās spēleswinter olympic games
    ziemas mēteliswinter coat
    ziemas riepaswinter tires (for driving on snow or ice)
    ziemas kviešiwinter wheat (sown in autumn, mature the next year)
    ziemas āboliwinter apples (those that mature in autumn)
    apaudzis biezu ziemas spalvu, suns izskatījās lielāks nekā toreiz, kad mežā to atstāja likteņā ziņā — having grown a thick winter fur, the dog looked bigger than the time when he was left to his fate in the forest

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ronald Kim (forth.), The phonology of Balto-Slavic, In: Handbook of Indo-European Studies, ed. M. Weiss & A. Garrett, OUP
  2. ^ “ziema” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7