zināt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally the iterative-durative form of zīt (to know), currently dialectal or archaic, but with prefixed forms pazīt (to be acquainted with), atzīt (to recognize, to acknowledge) still in use, from Proto-Baltic *žin-tey/ti, from the zero grade *ǵn̥-tey of Proto-Indo-European root *ǵen-, *ǵnō-, *ǵneh₃- (to be familiar with, to recognize; to know). This stem may ultimately be the same as *ǵen-, *ǵenh₁- (to create, to generate). Cognates include Lithuanian žinóti, Old Prussian -sinnat [zināt] (ersinnat (to be acquainted), posinnat (to admit, to recognize)), Old Church Slavonic знати (znati), Russian знать (znat’), Belarusian знаць (znac’), Ukrainian знати (znáty), Bulgarian зная (znája), Czech znát, Polish znać, Gothic 𐌺𐌿𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 ( kunnan), Old Norse kunna, German können, English can, Sanskrit जानाति (jānā́ti, to know), Ancient Greek γιγνώσκω (gignṓskō, to be familiar with, to recognize), Latin nōscere (< *gnōskere).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

zināt

  1. 2nd person plural present indicative form of zināt

zināt tr., 3rd conj., pres. zinu, zini, zina, past zināju

  1. to know (to have knowledge, to be informed, about something)
    zināt drauga adresi — to know a friend's address
    zināt jaunā kaimiņa vārdu — to know the new neighbor's name
    zināt jaunākos notikumus — to know the latest events
    zināt dziesmas vārdus — to know the song lyrics
    zināt savu darbu — to know one's work
    nezināt neko — to know nothing
    ja es to būtu zinājis! — if I had known that!
    kā lai es to zinu? — how do I know that?
    es zinu, kā tas (ir) darāms — I know how this is to be done
    es kaut ko zinu, bet es tev neteikšu — I know something, but I won't tell you
  2. to know how to do something, to be able to do something, also: to often, habitually do something
    zināt stāstīt — to know how to tell stories
    zināt spriest — to know how, to be able, to judge
    zināt palīdzēt — to know how to help, to be helpful
    zināt stāvēt dīkā — to know how to (usually) stand idle
    Annele par viņa vecumu ir apjautājusies ir šim, ir tam; bet kas to zina pateikt? — Annele asked around (lit. to this one and that one) about his age, but who was able to tell?
    Andra māte zināja mani arvien aizstāvēt un aizbildināt — Andris' mother knew to (= would) always defend and excuse me
  3. to know, to be acquainted with (someone), to be familiar with (something)
    zināt citam citu — to know each other
    bet mums ir kopīga paziņa; jūs taču zināt Ilgu? — but we have a common acquaintace; you do know Ilga, don't you?
    viņš zina katru Zandas kustību, katru soli — he knows Zanda's every move, every step
  4. to know, to understand, to have (something) clear in one's mind
    zināt savus trūkumus — to know one's deficiencies, weaknesses
    zināt, kā rīkoties — to know how to behave, to act
    dari, kā zini! — do as you know!
    zināt padomu grūtās situācijās — to know (some) advice in (= for) a difficult situation
    viņš gluži labi zināja, kā viņš nesapņoja — he knew quite well that he wasn't dreaming
    milzis vairs nezināja, kur likt savas lielās rokas — the giant no longer knew where to put his big hands
  5. to know about, to take care of, to be responsible for
    zināt par vakariņām — to know about (= be the one in charge of) dinner
    zināt par kārtību — to know about (= be responsible for) the order, sequence
    Ieva ir tikai meitene, pa pusei bērns, viņš - vīrs, un viņam jāzina par abiem — Ieva is just a girl, almost a child, he - a man, he must know about (= take care of, be responsible for) both
  6. (usually in the imperative) you know...
    zini, ziniet ko — you know what? (used to attract the listener's attention to what the hearer is going to say)
    nu, (vai) zini — well, you know (used to express one's feelings, usually negative, about what the listener has just said, or to attract the listener's attention to some, usually negative, fact)
    es vakar iepazinos ar mākslinieku... visās gleznās, zini, jūras un laivas — yesterday I met an artist... in all (his) paintings, you know, (there are) seas and boats
    tev dusmas, ka neesi ielūgta pie Mariannas; zini, mīļā, tās viesības nav domātas zīdaiņiem — you are angry because you were not invited to Marianna's; (but) you know, my dear, (that) party was not made for babies
    ziniet ko, padomus dodiet tiem, kas tos lūdz — you know what? give advice (only) to those who ask for it
    nu zini, šotēv, kad tev tik slikti iet, - mainīsimies — you know, father, when things are bad for you... let's change

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “zināt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7