- (NAPA) A central vowel (e.g. rounded ⟨ȯ, ɔ̇⟩ or unrounded ⟨ɛ̇, æ̇⟩).
- (on a consonant) Added to a letter with a descender to indicate retracted articulation, e.g. ⟨ġ⟩ for ⟨g̣⟩ (IPA [ɢ]), ⟨γ̇⟩ or ⟨ɣ̇⟩ (IPA [ʁ]), ⟨ŋ̇⟩ (IPA [ɴ]).
- (IPA, obsolete) palatalized (on a consonant letter).
Originally used in Latin-language manuscripts to "cross out" a letter written mistakenly, hence the name punctum delens (literally “deleting dot”). In Old Irish and Middle Irish manuscripts, it came to be sometimes used over ⟨f⟩ and ⟨s⟩ to show that these letters had undergone lenition to ∅ and /h/ respectively; the letters were thus effectively "crossed out" to show that their sounds had been deleted or debuccalized. In later Middle Irish and early Modern Irish, the dot came to be used to indicate lenition of any consonant. (In older Irish, lenition of ⟨c p t⟩ was indicated by ⟨ch ph th⟩, and lenition of ⟨b d g m⟩ was not shown at all.)