- Διώνυσος (Diṓnusos)
By popular etymology often connected with Διός (Diós) (the genitive of Ζεύς (Zeús, “Zeus”)). The dio- forms are probably built by analogy from an original stem die-. The compound die-nus-os is analysed as from a verbal stem die- (from δίεμαι (díemai, “to chase, to impel”)). The nus- element gave rise to a toponym Νύσα (Núsa, “Nusa”), a mountain where the god was nursed by nymphs (the Nysiads, Nysa is also the name given to one of these nymphs). According to the testimony of Pherecydes of Syros (6th c. BCE), nusa is a word for "tree". Janda (Die Musik nach dem Chaos, 2010) suggests an original meaning of "impeller of the (world-)tree" (the axis mundi), connecting the god with archaic cosmology. The close association or indeed identity of Dionysus with a tree (especially the fig tree) is well attested in the classical period.
- Διόνυσος in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- Διόνυσος in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
- Διόνυσος in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
- «Διόνυσος» in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (© 2006–2017)
- Διόνυσος in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
- Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, page 1,008