- ἐς (es)
From Proto-Hellenic *en-s (compare the Ionic form ἐνς (ens), later ἐς (es)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (“in”), from which also ἐν (en, “in, at, on”). Possibly was created to contrast with ἐν (en) as the result of analogy with the pair ἐκ (ek) / ἐξ (ex), of which the latter is the older form (see *h₁éǵʰs); the -/s/ in ἐξ (ex) is ultimately from the PIE genitive–ablative marker *-(e)s.
The accusative is from the pre-PIE directional.
- εἰς ὄνῠχᾰ (eis ónukha)
- “εἰς”, in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
- “εἰς”, in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
- “εἰς”, in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
- εἰς in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
- εἰς in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
- εἰς in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (2006–2023)
- “εἰς”, in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
- G1519 in Strong, James (1979) Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible
- Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “εἰς”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 394