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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *sǫ-. Cognate with Old Church Slavonic сѫ- (sǫ-). From either Proto-Indo-European *sm̥- (one, same) or Proto-Indo-European *ḱom (with). Further cognate with Old Prussian san-, sen, Lithuanian sán-, są́-, Latvian suo- (the latter three being nominal prefixes), along with Old Lithuanian sa-, sù-, Sanskrit सम् (sam), (sa), Avestan 𐬵𐬀𐬨- (ham-), 𐬵𐬀- (ha-), Ancient Greek ὁμοῦ (homoû, together with), ἅμα (háma, together with), ἁ- (ha-, with), Latin semel (once).

Etymologically identical to the verbal prefix с- (s-), from Proto-Slavic *sъ(n)-. The difference in development is because of the looser juncture between early Proto-Slavic verbs and preverbs: thus, preverbal *sun was subject to Slavic Auslautgesetze. A similar situation is found in modern German. Not to be confused with Proto-Slavic *sъ- (good), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁su-.

A similar or equivalent prefix appears in a few words in Old Church Slavonic as соу- (sou-), with no trace of a nasal vowel, e.g. соугоубь (sugubĭ, double), with the root of -гиба́ть (-gibátʹ, to bend); compare Russian сугу́бый (sugúbyj, strict, pure, (originally) double). Some linguists believe this to be a distinct suffix, while Vasmer sees (in this case at least) assimilation from earlier *sǫ-, as above.





су́- or су- (sú- or su-)

  1. com-, con- (forms nouns denoting a connection or link)
    су- (su-) + nominal form (with o-vocalism, Proto-Slavic -ǫ-) corresponding to -прячь (-prjačʹ, to yoke, to join) (root пряг- (prjag-)) → супру́г (suprúg, husband)
    су- (su-) + nominal form of сесть (sestʹ, to sit) (root сед- (sed-), Old East Slavic сѣд- (sěd-)) → Old East Slavic сусѣдъ (susědŭ, neighbor)Russian сосе́д (soséd, neighbor) (with change of prefix vowel, influenced by со- (so-))
    су- (su-) + порос- (poros-, pig) (compare порося́ (porosjá), поросёнок (porosjónok)) + -ость (-ostʹ)супоро́сость (suporósostʹ, pregnancy (in a pig))
  2. (forms nouns denoting incompleteness)
    су- (su-) + мрак (mrak, darkness)су́мрак (súmrak, dusk)
    су- (su-) + доро́га (doróga, road, passage) + -ица (-ica)судоро́жица (sudoróžica, impassability (during the rainy season), mudslide)
    су- (su-) + nominal form (with o-vocalism) corresponding to дёргать (djórgatʹ, to pull, to throb)су́дорога (súdoroga, cramp) (dialectal су́дорга (súdorga))

Usage notes

  • Not a productive prefix.

Derived terms