إذا

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See also: آداand ادا

Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʔi.ðaː/
  • (file)

Conjunction[edit]

إِذَا (ʾiḏā)

  1. when; if or when conditions are met, when it is that
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 4:6:
      وَٱبْتَلُوا ٱلْيَتَامَى حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغُوا ٱلنِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُم مِّنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَٱدْفَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوهَا إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَن يَكْبَرُوا وَمَن كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَفَى بِٱللَّهِ حَسِيبًا
      wa-btalū l-yatāmā ḥattā ʾiḏā balaḡū n-nikāḥa fa-ʾin ʾānastum mminhum rušdan fa-dfaʿū ʾilayhim ʾamwālahum wa-lā taʾkulūhā ʾisrāfan wa-bidāran ʾan yakbarū wa-man kāna ḡaniyyan fal-yastaʿfif wa-man kāna faqīran fal-yaʾkul bi-l-maʿrūfi fa-ʾiḏā dafaʿtum ʾilayhim ʾamwālahum fa-ʾašhidū ʿalayhim wa-kafā bi-llahi ḥasīban
      And test the ones who are alone (orphans) until when it is that they reach the age of marriage. Then if you find in them maturity of intellect, make over to them their commodities, and take in from it not in extravagance nor hastily before that their growing up. And whoever is one whose needs are filled, let him leave it untouched, and whoever is poor let him take in from it in a rightfully considered manner. Then when you make over to them their commodities, call witnesses in their presence; it is sufficient with God as One Who Reckons Measure.
    • (Can we date this quote?), Aboul-Qacem Echebbi (lyrics and music), “Humat Al-Hima”:
      إِذَا الشَّعْبُ يَوْمًا أَرَادَ الْحَيَاة / فَلَا بُدَّ أَنْ يَسْتَجِيبَ الْقَدَر
      ʾiḏā š-šaʿbu yawman ʾarāda l-ḥayā(t) / fa-lā budda ʾan yastajība l-qadar
      If one day the people demand having (a real) life; then it is a must that Fate should cause itself to answer
  2. when behold, then behold, when then, and then; often with an adverbial sense of suddenness or surprise or proceeding verbs that naturally denote a sudden action
    خَرَجْتُ فَإِذَا الْمَطَرُ يَنْهَمَرُ
    ḵarajtu fa-ʾiḏā l-maṭaru yanhamaru
    I had gone outside when suddenly the rain became a torrential downpour.
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 7:117:
      وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى مُوسَى أَنْ أَلْقِ عَصَاكَ فَإِذَا هِيَ تَلْقَفُ مَا يَأْفِكُونَ
      wa-ʾawḥaynā ʾilā mūsā ʾan ʾalqi ʿaṣāka fa-ʾiḏā hiya talqafu mā yaʾfikūna
      And we caused to be imparted to Moses to "present your staff (support)", when then it had quickly overtook what they had been flipping around (twisting or manipulating).

Usage notes[edit]

  • As a particle of surprise the verb that follows is typically found in the present/non-past tense despite having a past-tense sense; most often used in storytelling or relating events, announcing an event or occurrence that follows after another, a sequence.

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

إِذًا (ʾiḏan)

  1. then, therefore