إن

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: ان‎, آن‎, أن‎, اَنْ‎, -ان, and ان-

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Semitic *šim.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

إِن (ʾin)

  1. (conditional) if (possible, not contrary to fact)
    إِنْ تَدْرُسْ تَنْجَحْ‎ ― ʾin tadrus tanjaḥIf you study you (will) succeed.
    إِنْ لَا تَدْرُسْ لَا تَنْجَحْ‎ ― ʾin lā tadrus lā tanjaḥIf you do not study you (will) not succeed.
    اَلْمَرْءُ مَقْتُولٌ بِمَا قُتِلَ بِهِ: إِنْ سَيْفًا فَسَيْفٌ، وَإِنْ خِنْجَرًا فِخِنْجَرٌ.‎‎
    al-marʾu maqtūlun bimā qutila bihi: ʾin sayfan fasayfun, waʾin ḵinjaran fiḵinjarun.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    اَلنَّاسُ مَجْزِيُّونَ بِأَعَمَالِهِمْ، إِنْ خَيْرًا فَخَيْرٌ، وَإنْ شَرًّا فَشَرٌّ.‎‎
    an-nāsu majziyyūna biʾaʿamālihim, ʾin ḵayran faḵayrun, waʾin šarran fašarrun.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 2:111:
      هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
      hātū burhānakum ʾin kuntum ṣādiqīna
      Give your proof, if you are truthful.
Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Normally for conditions that are capable of being fulfilled. For contrary-to-fact conditions, use لَوْ(law). Used with the past tense or the jussive, in both cases with a present-tense meaning.

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate to Hebrew הִנֵּה(lo, behold).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

إِنَّ (ʾinna)

  1. indeed, an emphasizing sentence particle, usually untranslated
    إِنِّي فَقِير وَلَا أَجِدُ طَعَامًا أُطْعِمُ أَوْلَادِي وَعَائِلَتِي، فَسَاعِدْنِي.‎‎
    ʾinnī faqīr wa-lā ʾajidu ṭaʿāman ʾuṭʿimu ʾawlādī wa-ʿāʾilatī, fa-sāʿidnī.
    I am poor and can't find food to feed my children and my family, so please help me.
Usage notes[edit]
Inflection[edit]
    Inflected forms
Base form إِنَّ (ʾinna)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person إِنِّي / إِنِّيَ / إِنَّنِي / إِنَّنِيَ(ʾinnī / ʾinniya / ʾinnanī / ʾinnaniya) إِنَّنَا / إِنَّا(ʾinnanā / ʾinnā)
Second person إِنَّكَ(ʾinnaka) إِنَّكِ(ʾinnaki) إِنَّكُمَا(ʾinnakumā) إِنَّكُمْ(ʾinnakum) إِنَّكُنَّ(ʾinnakunna)
Third person إِنَّهُ(ʾinnahu) إِنَّهَا(ʾinnahā) إِنَّهُمَا(ʾinnahumā) إِنَّهُمْ(ʾinnahum) إِنَّهُنَّ(ʾinnahunna)
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Cognate to Hebrew אין(ein).

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

إِنْ (ʾin)

  1. not
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 67:20:
      إِنِ الْكَافِرُونَ إِلَّا فِي غُرُورٍ
      ʾini l-kāfirūna ʾillā fī ḡurūrin
      the disbelievers are not but in delusion
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 4:62:
      إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا
      ʾin ʾaradnā ʾillā ʾiḥsānan wa-tawfīqan
      we intended nothing but good conduct and accommodation

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lipiński, Edward (2001) Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta; 80) (in English), 2nd edition, Leuven: Peeters, →ISBN, page 482:
    One of the oldest and most important presentatives is *han, attested in Palaeosyrian and in Old Akkadian en-ma, later umma by assimilation. It is found in Ugaritic (hn), in Old Canaanite (a-nu, a-nu-ú, an-nu, an-nu-ú), in Hebrew (hinnē), in Arabic (ʾinna), In Ge'ez (ʾən-ka); e.g. Arabic ʾinna llāha ʾalā kulli šayʾin qadīrun, "behold, God has power over everything". It should be identified with the West Semitic article han-, but carefully distinguished from the conditional particle hnʾn.
  2. ^ Hetzron, Robert (1997) The Semitic Languages, page 201: The [Arabic] particle ʾinna, etymologically cognate to Hebrew hen, hinne: "behold", emphasizes that the speaker's utterance is true.

South Levantine Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic إن(ʾin).

Conjunction[edit]

إن (ʔin)

  1. if (followed by a past tense verb)
    إن جيت بكرة‎‎ ― if you come tomorrowʔin jīt bukra
    Synonyms: إذا(ʔiza), إنكنّـ(ʔin-kann-)
Usage notes[edit]
  • إن (ʔin) is always followed by a verb in the past tense, even if refer to an action the future.
See also[edit]
  • لو(law, if (hypothetical)), لونـ(lawenn-, if (hypothetical))

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic أَنَّ(ʾanna).

Conjunction[edit]

إنّـ (ʔinn-)

  1. that (followed by a suffix pronoun)
    Invariable form: إنّه(ʔinno)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This preposition can be either used invariable in the form إنّه(ʔinno) or with an attached suffix pronoun.
  • The suffix pronoun agrees with the subject of the subordinate clause.
Inflection[edit]
    Inflected forms of إن
Base form إنّـ (ʔinn-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person إنّي(ʔinni) إنّا(ʔinna)
2nd person إنّك(ʔinnak) إنّك(ʔinnek) إنكم(ʔinkom)
3rd person إنّه(ʔinno) إنها(ʔinha) إنهم(ʔinhom)
Derived terms[edit]