ثم

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See also: بم, تم, نم, and يم

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /θum.ma/
  • (file)

Conjunction[edit]

ثُمَّ (ṯumma)

  1. then, afterward, subsequently; used to indicate order of time, being later occurring, or even in lesser degree of impressiveness
  2. and again; used when repeating a word or short phrase in order to emphasize it
  3. and so or also, likewise, accordingly, moreover, furthermore, additionally so; used to denote a speaker's order of enunciation, not indicating a sequence or delay of occurrence between two statements
    • أَعْجَبَنِي مَا صَنَعْتَ اليَوْمَ ثُمَّ مَا صَنَعْتَ أَمْسِ أَعْجَبُ
      ʔaʕjabanī mā ṣanaʕta l-yawma ṯumma mā ṣanaʕta ʔamsi ʔaʕjabu
      What you did today caused me to be impressed; accordingly what you did yesterday was most impressive.
Usage notes[edit]
  • ثُمَّ (ṯumma) indicates that there is a certain period of time between the two actions, whereas فَ (fa) indicates that the second action follows directly after the first action.
Descendants[edit]
  • Ottoman Turkish: ثم (sümme)

Etymology 2[edit]

Compare Hebrew שָׁם (šām), שָׁמָּה (šā́mmā), Aramaic תַּמָּה (tammā), תַּמָּן (tammān), Ugaritic 𐎘𐎎 (ṯm).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ثَمَّ (ṯamma)

  1. there
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From the root ث م م (ṯ-m-m).

Verb[edit]

ثَمَّ (ṯamma) I, non-past يَثُمُّ‎ (yaṯummu)

  1. to put into a good state, to mend, to get together in an orderly fashion, to repair
  2. to apply ثُمَام (ṯumām, panicgrass) to
Conjugation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ثَمّ (ṯammm

  1. verbal noun of ثَمَّ (ṯamma) (form I)
Declension[edit]

Noun[edit]

ثُمّ (ṯummm

  1. household utensils, tools that put a house or tent into a good order, domestic possessions
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Freytag, Georg (1830), “ثم”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 1, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 226
  • Lane, Edward William (1863), “ثم”, in Arabic-English Lexicon, London: Williams & Norgate, pages 350–351
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985), “ثم”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 157

Urdu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ثُمَّ (ṯumma).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ثُمَّ (summa) (Hindi spelling सुम्मा)

  1. again, once more
  2. then, thereafter

References[edit]

  • ثم”, in اُردُو لُغَت (urdū luġat) (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • ثم”, in ریخْتَہ لُغَت (rexta luġat) - Rekhta Dictionary [Urdu dictionary with meanings in Hindi & English], Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2024.