شهر

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See also:شہرandسہر

Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the root ⁧ش ه ر(š-h-r). Compare Aramaicסהרא⁩ and Old South Arabian𐩦𐩠𐩧(s²hr, beginning of the lunar month).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • Verb I: IPA(key): /ʃa.ha.ra/
  • Verb II: IPA(key): /ʃah.ha.ra/
  • Noun: IPA(key): /ʃahr/
  • Noun:
    (file)

Verb[edit]

شَهَرَ (šahara) I, non-pastيَشْهَرُ⁩‎ (yašharu)

  1. to spread, to make known, to divulge
  2. to make well-known, to make famous, to make notorious
  3. to proclaim, to announce
  4. to draw (a weapon), to unsheathe
Conjugation[edit]

Verb[edit]

شَهَّرَ (šahhara) II, non-pastيُشَهِّرُ⁩‎ (yušahhiru)

  1. to make well-known, to make famous, to make notorious
  2. to spread, to make known, to divulge
  3. to proclaim, to announce
  4. to defame, to slander, to revile, to pillory, to condemn, to denounce
Conjugation[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

شَهْر (šahrm (pluralأَشْهُر(ʔašhur) orشُهُور(šuhūr))

  1. verbal noun of شَهَرَ(šahara) (form I)
  2. month (unit of time)
  3. new moon (beginning of the lunar month)
    شَهْر الْعَسَل(šahr al-ʕasal, honeymoon)
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Jeffery, Arthur (1938) The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series; 79), Baroda: Oriental Institute, page 186–187
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985), “شهر”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 680

Egyptian Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabicشَهْر(šahr).

Noun[edit]

شهر (šahrm (dualشهرين(šahrēn), pluralشهور(šuhūr), paucalتشهر(tušhur))

  1. month

Moroccan Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabicشَهْر(šahr).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

شهر (šharm (dualشهرين(šahrayn), pluralشهور(šhūr) orشهورة(šhūra))

  1. month

See also[edit]

Gregorian calendar months in Moroccan Arabic · ⁧شهور التقويم الميلادي(šhūr et-taqwīm el-mīlādi) (layout · text)
January February March April
شهر واحد(šhar wāḥid)
يناير(yanāyir)
شهر جوج(šhar jūj)
فبراير(fibrāyir)
شهر تلاتة(šhar tlāta)
مارس(māris)
شهر ربعة(šhar rabʕa)
أبريل(abrīl)
May June July August
شهر خمسة(šhar ḵamsa)
ماي(māy)
شهر ستة(šhar sitta)
يونيو(yūnyu)
شهر سبعة(šhar sabʕa)
يوليوز(yūlyūz)
شهر تمنية(šhar tmanya)
غشت(ḡušt)
September October November December
شهر تسعة(šhar tisʕa)
شهر تسعود(šhar tisʕūd)
شتنبر(šutanbir)
شهر عشرة(šhar ʕašra)
أكتوبر(ʔuktūbar)
شهر حداش(šhar ḥdāš)
نونبر(nuwanbir)
شهر تناش(šhar tnāš)
دجنبر(dujanbir)

Ottoman Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Persianشهر(šahr, city, town).

Noun[edit]

شهر (şehir)

  1. city, a large settlement bigger than a town
    Synonyms:كنت(kent), ⁧مدینه(medine)
  2. (especially) the chief city or capital of a province

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Turkish: şehir
  • Serbo-Croatian:
    Latin script: šȅher
    Cyrillic script: ше̏хер

Further reading[edit]

Persian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Middle Persian𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩(štry /⁠šahr⁠/) (compare Old Persian 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (x-š-ç-m /⁠xšaça-⁠/)), from Proto-Iranian *xšaθram, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *kšatrám. Compare Pashtoښار(ẍâr) and Avestan𐬑𐬱𐬀𐬚𐬭𐬀(xšaθra).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Readings
Classical reading? šahr
Dari reading? šahr
Iranian reading? šahr
Tajik reading? šahr

Noun[edit]

Dari شهر
Iranian Persian
Tajik шаҳр

شَهْر (šahr) (pluralشهرها(šahr-hâ))

  1. city, town
    بزرگترین شهر ایران⁩ ― bozorgtarin šahr-e irânlargest city in Iran
  2. (obsolete) land, country, realm
    • c. 1011, Abu'l-Qāsim Firdawsī, “The Tale of Rustam and Isfandiyār”, in شاهنامه [Book of Kings]‎[1]:
      چو او شهر ایران به گشتاسپ داد
      نیامد ترا هیچ زان تخت یاد
      سوی او یکی نامه ننوشته‌ای
      از آرایش بندگی گشته‌ای
      čū ō šahr-i ērān ba guštāsp dād
      nay-āmad tu-rā hēč z-ān taxt yād
      sōy-i ō yakē nāma na-niwišta'ī
      az ārāyiš-i bandagī gašta'ī
      When he gave the realm of Iran to Gushtāsp,
      You did not remember that throne at all;
      You did not write a single letter to him,
      You turned away from the adornment of vassalage.
      (Classical Persian romanization)

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

South Levantine Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabicشَهْر(šahr).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʃahr/, [ˈʃa.h(ɪ)r]
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

شهر (šahrm (pluralأشهر(ʔašhor) orشهور(šhūr))

  1. month

See also[edit]

Gregorian calendar months in South Levantine Arabic · ⁧أشهر التقويم الميلادي(ʔašhor it-taqwīm il-mīlādi) (layout · text)
January February March April
شهر واحد(šahr wāḥad),
كانون التاني(kānūn it-tāni)
شهر تنين(šahr tnēn),
شباط(šbāṭ)
شهر تلاتة(šahr talāte),
آذار(ʔāḏār)
شهر أربعة(šahr arbaʕa),
نيسان(nīsān)
May June July August
شهر خمسة(šahr ḵamse),
أيّار(ʔayyār)
شهر ستّة(šahr sitte),
حزيران(ḥazīrān)
شهر سبعة(šahr sabʕa),
تمّوز(tammūz)
شهر تمانية(šahr tamanye),
آب(ʔāb)
September October November December
شهر تسعة(šahr tisʕa),
أيلول(ʔēlūl)
شهر عشرة(šahr ʕašara),
تشرين الأوّل(tišrīn il-ʔawwal)
شهر حدعش(šahr ḥdaʕš),
تشرين التاني(tišrīn it-tāni)
شهر تنعش(šahr tnaʕš),
كانون الأوّل(kānūn il-ʔawwal)

Tunisian Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabicشَهْر(šahr).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

شهر⁩ (šharm (dualشهرين(šahrīn), pluralأشهرة(ušhra))

  1. month

See also[edit]

Gregorian calendar months in Tunisian Arabic · ⁧أشهرة سوري(layout · text)
January February March April
جانفي فيفري مارس أفريل
May June July August
ماي جوان جويلية أوت
September October November December
سبتمبر أكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر