From Middle Persian -yk' / 𐭩𐭪𐭩 (yky /-īg/), from Proto-Iranian *-akah, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos. Later influenced by Arabic ـِيّ (-iyy).
ـی • (-i)
- Forms nouns or adjectives from nouns
- of or pertaining to
- one from or belonging to
- Forms the word for a profession, and the place it is practiced, from the word for the person who practice it
- خیاطی (“tailoring; tailor shop”)
- able to, capabale of being, deserved to be, determined to, and/or destined to
- Forms surnames.
ـی is the form that follows words ending in consonants. Adjectives ending in the short vowel ـه (-e) will use the form ـگی (-egi) for their derived nouns, while nouns ending in ـه (-e) will usually add the non-joining ای (-i) to form their derived adjectives. Both nouns and adjectives ending in the long vowels ـا (-â) and ـو (-u) will use the form یی (-yi)
As a derivational suffix, ـی and the above-mentioned alternative forms take the stress in a word, as in خورشیدی (xoršidí, “solar”). As the marked indefinite or relative definite suffix, the stress remains on the root of the word, as in خورشیدی (xoršídi, “a sun / the sun which”)
Most Persian surnames end in this suffix.
ـی • (-i)
- Forms abstract nouns from adjectives.
From Middle Persian 𐭸 (1 /ē(w)/), from Old Persian 𐎠𐎡𐎺 (a-i-v /aiva/), Proto-Iranian *Háywah, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Háywas, from Proto-Indo-European *óywos. Compare Ancient Greek οἶος (oîos), and Avestan 𐬀𐬉𐬎𐬎𐬀 (aēuua).
ـی • (-ê)
The usage is almost completely restricted to marking the indefinite noun of a sentence; in all other instances, the word یک (yek, “one”) is used. Etymologically, both of these words however derive from the same Proto-Indo-European root.
It is attached as a suffix to a noun in a sentence and acts as the indefinite object marker. Most words use the non-joining ای (-ê), unless the word ends in the long vowels ـا (-â) and ـو (-u) or a non-joining consonant. For instance, “a house” would be خانهای (xâna-yê), “a dog” would be سگای (sag-ê), and “houses” would be خانههایی (xâna-ha-yê).
Inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit -𑀇𑀅 (-ia), from Sanskrit -इक (-ika, diminutive suffix) or Sanskrit -ईय (-īya, adjectival suffix). Later influenced through Persian by Arabic ـِيّ (-iyy, nisba suffix).
- relating to, forms adjectives from nouns
- doer, possessor
- forms abstract nouns from adjectives or common nouns