مال

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Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Probably a univerbation of مَا(, what) + ل(l-, to; belonging to), as in مَا لِي (mā lī, what belongs to me). The root م و ل(m-w-l) then developed denominally. While this may seem like popular etymology, similar univerbations do exist in Arabic; compare particularly the dialectal verb جَاب(jāb).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

مَالِ (māli)

  1. Obsolete spelling of مَا لِ(mā li)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 61:2-3:
      فَمَالِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟...‎‎
      So what is with those who disbelieve...

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /maːl/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

مَال (mālm (plural أَمْوَال(ʾamwāl))

  1. property, possessions, chattels, goods
  2. wealth, affluence
  3. fortune, estate
  4. money
  5. income, revenue
  6. assets, capital, stock, fund
  7. (Islam, law) marketable title
  8. (Egypt) tax, land tax
Declension[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bauer, Hans (1935), “Etymologica I”, in Zeitschrift für Semitistik und verwandte Gebiete (in German), volume 10, page 1
  • Freytag, Georg (1837), “مال”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 221
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860), “مال”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 1168
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1884), “مال”, in The Student's Arabic–English Dictionary[1], London: W.H. Allen, page 983
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985), “مال”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 1233

Etymology 3[edit]

From the root م ي ل(m-y-l).

Verb[edit]

مَالَ (māla) I, non-past يَمِيلُ‎‎ (yamīlu)

  1. to bend, incline to
  2. to lean (عَلَى(ʿalā, against))
  3. to be favorably disposed
  4. to hang down
  5. to sink
  6. to move towards (not in a straight line)
  7. to decline, deviate
  8. to sympathize (إِلَى(ʾilā, with))
  9. to have an antipathy (عَلَى(ʿalā, against))
Conjugation[edit]

Verb[edit]

مَالَ (māla) I, non-past يَمِيلُ‎‎ (yamīlu)

  1. to turn towards setting
  2. (transitive or construed with إِلَى(ʾilā)) to be favorably disposed towards
Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  • Freytag, Georg (1837), “مال”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 225
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860), “مال”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 1174
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1884), “مال”, in The Student's Arabic–English Dictionary[2], London: W.H. Allen, page 1089
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985), “مال”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 1239

Gulf Arabic[edit]

Adverb[edit]

مال (māl)

  1. Followed by a noun or a pronominal suffix to indicate possession
    الكتاب كان مالها.‎‎
    l-kitāb kān mālha.
    The book belonged to her.

Laki[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Related to Persian ماندن(mândan, to stay, remain).

Noun[edit]

مال (mal)

  1. house

Persian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic مَال(māl). The pronominal use is also found in Iraqi Arabic, hence it may have entered Persian through dialectal Arabic or it may be a Persian influence on the former.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

مال (mâl) (plural اموال(amvâl) or مال‌ها(mâl-hâ))

  1. Used in the singular with a subsequent ezâfe to form constructions equivalent to English possessive pronouns and constructions.
    آن سگ بزرگ مال توست؟‎‎ ― ân sag-e bozorg mâl-e to-st?Is that big dog yours?
    این کتاب مال من نیست.‎‎ ― in ketâb mâl-e man nist.This book isn't mine.
    این مال ایران است؟‎‎ ― in mâl-e irân ast?Is this from Iran?
  2. (as an independent noun) property, wealth, money, assets

Usage notes[edit]

This noun forms the Persian equivalent to English possessive pronouns and constructions. For example, "mine" is مال من (mâl-e man) and "yours" is مال تو (mâl-e to). However, the sense is broader than the English equivalents: مال ایران (mâl-e irân) means not only "something belonging to Iran" but also "something from Iran" or even "something pertaining to Iran".

In the literary language only, the pronoun آن(ân, that) can be used for similar purposes: آن من (ân-e man, mine), آن تو (ân-e to, yours).

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


South Levantine Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From ما(, what) +‎ لـ(la-, to).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /maː.lo/, [ˈmæː.lo]
  • (file)

Phrase[edit]

مال (māl)

  1. what's up with, what's wrong with
    (شو) مالك؟‎‎
    (šū) mālak?
    What's wrong with you?
    (شو) مال أحمد؟‎‎
    (šū) māl ʔaḥmad?
    What's up with Ahmad?
    ماله الحمار؟‎‎
    mālo l-ḥmār
    What's up with the donkey?

Inflection[edit]

    Inflected forms of مال
Base form مال (māl)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person مالي(māli) مالنا(mālna)
2nd person مالك(mālak) مالك(mālek) مالكم(mālkom)
3rd person ماله(mālo) مالها(mālha) مالهم(mālhom)

Urdu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Persian مال‎, from Arabic مَال(māl).

Noun[edit]

مال (mālm (Hindi spelling माल)

  1. property, possessions, goods
  2. wealth
  3. fortune, estate
  4. merchandise, stock
  5. money
  6. income, revenue
  7. finance
  8. prize
  9. assets, capital, fund
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Sanskrit मल्ल (malla).

Noun[edit]

مال (mālm (Hindi spelling माल)

  1. wrestler
  2. boxer
  3. prizefighter
  4. athlete
  5. champion
  6. hero

Etymology 3[edit]

From Sanskrit माल्य (mālya) or माला (mālā).

Noun[edit]

مال (mālf (Hindi spelling माल)

  1. wreath
  2. garland