चीन

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Hindi[edit]

Hindi Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia hi

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit चीन (cīna).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /t͡ʃiːn/, [t͡ʃĩːn̪]

Proper noun[edit]

चीन (cīnm (Urdu spelling چین‎)

  1. China (a country in Asia)

Declension[edit]


Nepali[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

चीन (cīn)

  1. China

Declension[edit]

Declension of चीन
Singular
nominative चीन (cīn)
accusative चीनलाई (cīnlāī)
instrumental चीनले (cīnle)
dative चीनलाई (cīnlāī)
ablative चीनबाट (cīnbāṭa)
genitive चीनको (cīnko)
locative चीनमा (cīnmā)
Notes:
  • -को (-ko) becomes:
    • -का (-kā) when followed by a plural noun.
    • -की (-kī) when followed by a feminine noun.

Newar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately from Sanskrit चीन (cīna)

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

चीन (cīna? (Newa Spelling 𑐔𑐷𑐣)

  1. China

Sanskrit[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Of uncertain etymology, but usually held to derive from Old Chinese (OC *zin, “Qin”).[1][2][3] But other theories have been proposed, including derivation from (jìn, “Jin”), Middle Chinese (MC t͡siɪnH), Old Chinese (OC *ʔsins),[4] (jīng, “Jing”),[5] or the Zina of 夜郎 (Yèláng, “Yelang”).[5] See "Names of China" and "Chinas" at Wikipedia.

Proper noun[edit]

चीन (cīnam

  1. the Cīna or China (name of a people attested in classical literature, often identified as the Chinese)
    • c. 200 BCE – 200 CE, Manusmṛti 10.44:
      पौण्ड्रकाश्चौड्रद्रविडाः काम्बोजा यवनाः शकाः ।
      पारदापह्लवाश्चीनाः किराता दरदाः खशाः ॥
      pauṇḍrakāścauḍradraviḍāḥ kāmbojā yavanāḥ śakāḥ .
      pāradāpahlavāścīnāḥ kirātā daradāḥ khaśāḥ .
      the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambojas, the Yavanas, the Sakas,
      the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Cinas, the Kiratas, the Daradas, and the Khasas.
    • c. 400 BCE, Mahābhārata 5.19.15:
      तस्य चीनैः किरातैश्च काञ्चनैरिव संवृतम् ।
      बभौ बलमनाधृष्यं कर्णिकारवनं यथा ॥
      tasya cīnaiḥ kirātaiśca kāñcanairiva saṃvṛtam .
      babhau balamanādhṛṣyaṃ karṇikāravanaṃ yathā .
      Thronged with the Cīnas and the Kirātas, all as if (clad in) gold,
      His unassailable army radiated (a splendour) like a forest of bayur trees.
    • c. 500 BCE – 100 BCE, Rāmāyaṇa 4.44.14
    • c. 600 BCE – 200 BCE, Caraka
    • 550 CE, Varāhamihira, Bṛhat Saṃhitā

Declension[edit]

Masculine a-stem declension of चीन (cīna)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative चीनः
cīnaḥ
चीनौ
cīnau
चीनाः / चीनासः¹
cīnāḥ / cīnāsaḥ¹
Vocative चीन
cīna
चीनौ
cīnau
चीनाः / चीनासः¹
cīnāḥ / cīnāsaḥ¹
Accusative चीनम्
cīnam
चीनौ
cīnau
चीनान्
cīnān
Instrumental चीनेन
cīnena
चीनाभ्याम्
cīnābhyām
चीनैः / चीनेभिः¹
cīnaiḥ / cīnebhiḥ¹
Dative चीनाय
cīnāya
चीनाभ्याम्
cīnābhyām
चीनेभ्यः
cīnebhyaḥ
Ablative चीनात्
cīnāt
चीनाभ्याम्
cīnābhyām
चीनेभ्यः
cīnebhyaḥ
Genitive चीनस्य
cīnasya
चीनयोः
cīnayoḥ
चीनानाम्
cīnānām
Locative चीने
cīne
चीनयोः
cīnayoḥ
चीनेषु
cīneṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Descendants[edit]

  • Niya Prakrit: 𐨕𐨁𐨣(cina), 𐨕𐨁𐨎𐨣(ciṃna)
  • Middle Persian: 𐭰𐭩𐭭(čīn)
  • Middle Chinese: 支那 (MC t͡ɕiᴇ nɑ)
  • Malay: Cina

Usually held to be the source of:

Noun[edit]

चीन (cīnan

  1. a bandage for the corners of the eyes

Declension[edit]

Neuter a-stem declension of चीन (cīna)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative चीनम्
cīnam
चीने
cīne
चीनानि / चीना¹
cīnāni / cīnā¹
Vocative चीन
cīna
चीने
cīne
चीनानि / चीना¹
cīnāni / cīnā¹
Accusative चीनम्
cīnam
चीने
cīne
चीनानि / चीना¹
cīnāni / cīnā¹
Instrumental चीनेन
cīnena
चीनाभ्याम्
cīnābhyām
चीनैः / चीनेभिः¹
cīnaiḥ / cīnebhiḥ¹
Dative चीनाय
cīnāya
चीनाभ्याम्
cīnābhyām
चीनेभ्यः
cīnebhyaḥ
Ablative चीनात्
cīnāt
चीनाभ्याम्
cīnābhyām
चीनेभ्यः
cīnebhyaḥ
Genitive चीनस्य
cīnasya
चीनयोः
cīnayoḥ
चीनानाम्
cīnānām
Locative चीने
cīne
चीनयोः
cīnayoḥ
चीनेषु
cīneṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dr M. R. Singh (1972) Geographical Data in Early Puranas, pages 172
  2. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (2001), “cīna-”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), volume 3, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 191
  3. ^ Yule, Henry (2005) Cathay and the Way Thither[1], →ISBN, pages 2–3
  4. ^ Zhengzhang, Shangfang (鄭張尚芳) (2006), “古译名勘原辨讹五例 [A correction of the erroneous etymologic analyses on five ancient translated names]”, in 中国语文 (in Chinese), volume 315, ISSN 0578-1949, pages 541–549
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wade Geoff (2009-05), “The Polity of Yelang and the Origin of the Name 'China'”, in Sino-Platonic Papers[2], issue 188