यवन

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Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowing from Prakrit 𑀬𑁄𑀦 (yona), 𑀬𑁄𑀜 (yoṇa), borrowed from Old Persian 𐎹𐎢𐎴 (yauna), ultimately borrowed from Ancient Greek Ἴων (Íōn, an Ionian). The earliest foreign contact of Sanskrit speakers was likely the armies of Alexander the Great. See also म्लेच्छ (mleccha, non-Aryan, barbarian).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

यवन (yavanam

  1. a foreigner, barbarian not part of the four-tiers of varna
    1. a Greek, Ionian
      यवनेश्वरyavaneśvaraking of the Greeks
      • c. 150 CE, Yavanajātaka :
        यवनजातक
        yavanajātaka
        nativity according to the Greeks
    2. Bactrian
    3. Scythians
      • c. 1000, Rāmāyaṇa 1.54.20b, 21a:
        विश्वामित्र अर्दितान् दृष्ट्वा पह्लवान् शतशः तदा ॥
        भूय एव असृजत् घोरान् शकान् यवन मिश्रितान् ।
        viśvāmitra arditān dṛṣṭvā pahlavān śataśaḥ tadā .
        bhūya eva asṛjat ghorān śakān yavana miśritān .
        • 2002 translation by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao
          On seeing the subdual of hundreds of Pahlava-s by Vishvamitra, then the Sacred Cow again generated deadly Shaka-s hobnobbed with Yavana-s through her mooing 'hums'.
    4. Arab, Muslim
    5. (Late Sanskrit) a European

Declension[edit]

Masculine a-stem declension of यवन
Nom. sg. यवनः (yavanaḥ)
Gen. sg. यवनस्य (yavanasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative यवनः (yavanaḥ) यवनौ (yavanau) यवनाः (yavanāḥ)
Vocative यवन (yavana) यवनौ (yavanau) यवनाः (yavanāḥ)
Accusative यवनम् (yavanam) यवनौ (yavanau) यवनान् (yavanān)
Instrumental यवनेन (yavanena) यवनाभ्याम् (yavanābhyām) यवनैः (yavanaiḥ)
Dative यवनाय (yavanāya) यवनाभ्याम् (yavanābhyām) यवनेभ्यः (yavanebhyaḥ)
Ablative यवनात् (yavanāt) यवनाभ्याम् (yavanābhyām) यवनेभ्यः (yavanebhyaḥ)
Genitive यवनस्य (yavanasya) यवनयोः (yavanayoḥ) यवनानाम् (yavanānām)
Locative यवने (yavane) यवनयोः (yavanayoḥ) यवनेषु (yavaneṣu)

Descendants[edit]

  • Tamil: யவனர் (yavaṉar)

References[edit]