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Devanagari s.svg
U+0938, स
DEVANAGARI LETTER SA

[U+0937]
Devanagari
[U+0939]
See also: , स़, से, सु-, and स-

Translingual[edit]

Devanagari s स.gif

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sə/ (may vary by language)

Letter[edit]

(sa)

  1. The third sibilant of the Devanagari script. Linguistically it is considered an alveolar sibilant.

See also[edit]

Ligatures:


Hindi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

(sa)

  1. The thirty-second consonant in Hindi.
  2. (music) The first note of the Hindi musical scale.

See also[edit]


Konkani[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit षष् (ṣaṣ), from Proto-Indo-European *swéḱs (six). Compare Hindi छह (chah) and Marathi सहा (sahā).

Numeral[edit]

(sa/so) (Latin script sov, Kannada script )

  1. (cardinal) six

Sanskrit[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Letter[edit]

(sa)

  1. the last of the three sibilants, /s/

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

(sa)

  1. (prosody) an anapest

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviation[edit]

(sa)

  1. (in music) an abbreviated term for षड्ज (ṣaḍ-ja)

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

(sam

  1. a snake
  2. air, wind
  3. a bird
  4. name of Vishnu or Shiva
Declension[edit]
Masculine a-stem declension of स
Nom. sg. सः (saḥ)
Gen. sg. सस्य (sasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सः (saḥ) सौ (sau) साः (sāḥ)
Vocative (sa) सौ (sau) साः (sāḥ)
Accusative सम् (sam) सौ (sau) सान् (sān)
Instrumental सेन (sena) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सैः (saiḥ)
Dative साय (sāya) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Ablative सात् (sāt) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Genitive सस्य (sasya) सयोः (sayoḥ) सानाम् (sānām)
Locative से (se) सयोः (sayoḥ) सेषु (seṣu)

Noun[edit]

(san

  1. knowledge
  2. meditation
  3. a carriage road
  4. a fence
Declension[edit]
Neuter a-stem declension of स
Nom. sg. सम् (sam)
Gen. sg. सस्य (sasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सम् (sam) से (se) सानि (sāni)
Vocative (sa) से (se) सानि (sāni)
Accusative सम् (sam) से (se) सानि (sāni)
Instrumental सेन (sena) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सैः (saiḥ)
Dative सा () साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Ablative सात् (sāt) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Genitive सस्य (sasya) सयोः (sayoḥ) सानाम् (sānām)
Locative से (se) सयोः (sayoḥ) सेषु (seṣu)

Etymology 5[edit]

From the root √san (√san, to procure, bestow, give, distribute).

Adjective[edit]

(sa)

  1. procuring, bestowing (only at the end of a compound)
    पशुष (paśu-ṣá)bestowing cattle
    प्रियस (priyá-sá)granting desired objects

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *sá, *sā, *tád, from Proto-Indo-European *só, *séh₂, *tód. Cognate with Ancient Greek (ho), (), τό (), Old Church Slavonic тъ () та (ta), то (to), and Old English se (English the). Confer also suppletive-stem feminine and neuter forms सा (), तद् (tad).

Pronoun[edit]

(m

  1. (3rd person pronoun) he
Declension[edit]
Declension of
Nom. sg. सः (saḥ), स (sa) (saḥ (saḥ), sa (sa))
Gen. sg. तस्य (tasya) (tasya (tasya))
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सः (saḥ), स (sa) (saḥ (saḥ), sa (sa)) तौ (tau) (tau (tau)) ते (te) (te (te))
Vocative - (-) - (-) - (-)
Accusative तम् (tam) (tam (tam)) तौ (tau) (tau (tau)) तान् (tān) (tān (tān))
Instrumental तेन (tena) (tena (tena)) ताभ्याम् (tābhyām) (tābhyām (tābhyām)) तैः (taiḥ) (taiḥ (taiḥ))
Dative तस्मै (tasmai) (tasmai (tasmai)) ताभ्याम् (tābhyām) (tābhyām (tābhyām)) तेभ्यः (tebhyaḥ) (tebhyaḥ (tebhyaḥ))
Ablative तस्मात् (tasmāt), ततः (tataḥ) (tasmāt (tasmāt), tataḥ (tataḥ)) ताभ्याम् (tābhyām), ततः (tataḥ) (tābhyām (tābhyām), tataḥ (tataḥ)) तेभ्यः (tebhyaḥ), ततः (tataḥ) (tebhyaḥ (tebhyaḥ), tataḥ (tataḥ))
Genitive तस्य (tasya) (tasya (tasya)) तयोः (tayoḥ) (tayoḥ (tayoḥ)) तेषाम् (teṣām) (teṣām (teṣām))
Locative [[तस्मिन् (tasmin), सस्मिन्RV (sásmin)#Sanskrit|तस्मिन् (tasmin), सस्मिन्RV (sásmin)]] (tasmin (tasmin), sasminRV (sásmin)) तयोः (tayoḥ) (tayoḥ (tayoḥ)) तेषु (teṣu) (teṣu (teṣu))
Usage notes[edit]

The final s of the nominative m sás is dropped before all consonants (except before /p/ in RV. v, 2, 4, and before /t/ in RV. viii, 33, 16) and appears only at the end of a sentence in the form of visarga. sa occasionally blends with another vowel (as in saī*ṣaḥ) and it is often for emphasis connected with another pronoun as with अहम् (aham), त्वम् (tvam), एष (eṣa), अयम् (ayam) etc.

(please add the primary text of this usage example)so 'ham sa tvamI (or thou) that very person
; cf. under तद् (tád)

The verb then following in the 1st and 2nd person even if aham or tvam be omitted

(please add the primary text of this usage example)sa tvā pṛcchāmiI that very person ask you
(please add the primary text of this usage example)sa vai no brūhido thou tell us

Similarly, to denote emphasis, with भवान् (bhavān)

(please add the primary text of this usage example)sa bhavān vijayāya pratiṣṭhatāmlet your Highness set out for victory

It sometimes (and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas) stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a relatve pronoun or adverb such as (ya), यद् (yad), यदि (yadi), यथा (yathā), चेद् (ce*d); in this position sa may be used pleonastically or as a kind of indeclinable, even where another gender or number is required

(please add the primary text of this usage example)sa yadi sthāvarā āpo bhanantiif those waters are stagnant

In the Sāṃkhya sa, like एष (eṣa), (ka), and (ya), is used to denote पुरुष (puruṣa), "the Universal Soul".

Etymology 7[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(sa)

  1. an inseparable prefix expressing "junction", "conjunction", "possession" (as opposed to a privative), "similarity", "equality"
  2. when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it may be translated by "with", "together or along with", "accompanied by", "added to", "having", "possessing", "containing", "having the same"
    सकोप (sa-kopa)full of anger, enraged, displeased
    साग्नि (sā*gni)together with the fire
    सभार्य (sa-bhārya)with a wife, having a wife
    सद्रोण (sa-droṇa)with a droṇa added to a droṇa
    सधर्मन् (sa-dharman)having the same duties
    सवर्ण (sa-varṇa)having the same colour or appearance, similar, like
  3. "-ly"
    सकोपम् (sa-kopam)angrily
    सोपधि (so*padhi)fraudulently

References[edit]

  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 1111