Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: , स़, से, सु-, and स-
Devanagari s.svg
U+0938, स



Devanagari s स.gif


  • IPA(key): /sə/ (may vary by language)



  1. The third sibilant of the Devanagari script. Linguistically it is considered an alveolar sibilant.

See also[edit]






  1. The thirty-second consonant in Hindi.
  2. (music) The first note of the Hindi musical scale.

See also[edit]


Alternative forms[edit]


From Sanskrit षष् (ṣaṣ), from Proto-Indo-European *swéḱs (six). Compare Hindi छह (chah) and Marathi सहा (sahā).


(sa/so) (Latin script sov, Kannada script )

  1. (cardinal) six


Etymology 1[edit]



  1. the last of the three sibilants, /s/

Etymology 2[edit]



  1. (prosody) an anapest

Etymology 3[edit]



  1. (in music) an abbreviated term for षड्ज (ṣaḍ-ja)

Etymology 4[edit]



  1. a snake
  2. air, wind
  3. a bird
  4. name of Vishnu or Shiva
Masculine a-stem declension of स
Nom. sg. सः (saḥ)
Gen. sg. सस्य (sasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सः (saḥ) सौ (sau) साः (sāḥ)
Vocative (sa) सौ (sau) साः (sāḥ)
Accusative सम् (sam) सौ (sau) सान् (sān)
Instrumental सेन (sena) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सैः (saiḥ)
Dative साय (sāya) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Ablative सात् (sāt) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Genitive सस्य (sasya) सयोः (sayoḥ) सानाम् (sānām)
Locative से (se) सयोः (sayoḥ) सेषु (seṣu)



  1. knowledge
  2. meditation
  3. a carriage road
  4. a fence
Neuter a-stem declension of स
Nom. sg. सम् (sam)
Gen. sg. सस्य (sasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सम् (sam) से (se) सानि (sāni)
Vocative (sa) से (se) सानि (sāni)
Accusative सम् (sam) से (se) सानि (sāni)
Instrumental सेन (sena) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सैः (saiḥ)
Dative साय (sāya) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Ablative सात् (sāt) साभ्याम् (sābhyām) सेभ्यः (sebhyaḥ)
Genitive सस्य (sasya) सयोः (sayoḥ) सानाम् (sānām)
Locative से (se) सयोः (sayoḥ) सेषु (seṣu)

Etymology 5[edit]

From the root √san (to procure, bestow, give, distribute).



  1. procuring, bestowing (only at the end of a compound)
    पशुष (paśu-ṣá)bestowing cattle
    प्रियस (priyá-sá)granting desired objects

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *sá, *sā, *tád, from Proto-Indo-European *só, *séh₂, *tód. Cognate with Ancient Greek (ho), (), τό (), Old Church Slavonic тъ (), та (ta), то (to), and Old English se (English the). Confer also suppletive-stem feminine and neuter forms सा (), तद् (tad).



  1. (3rd person pronoun) he
Declension of
Nom. sg. सः, स (saḥ, sa)
Gen. sg. तस्य (tasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative सः, स (saḥ, sa) तौ (tau) ते (te)
Accusative तम् (tam) तौ (tau) तान् (tān)
Instrumental तेन (tena) ताभ्याम् (tābhyām) तैः (taiḥ)
Dative तस्मै (tasmai) ताभ्याम् (tābhyām) तेभ्यः (tebhyaḥ)
Ablative तस्मात्, ततः (tasmāt, tataḥ) ताभ्याम् , ततः (tābhyām , tataḥ) तेभ्यः, ततः (tebhyaḥ, tataḥ)
Genitive तस्य (tasya) तयोः (tayoḥ) तेषाम् (teṣām)
Locative तस्मिन्, सस्मिन् (tasmin, sasmin) तयोः (tayoḥ) तेषु (teṣu)
Usage notes[edit]

The final s of the nominative m sás is dropped before all consonants (except before /p/ in RV. v, 2, 4, and before /t/ in RV. viii, 33, 16) and appears only at the end of a sentence in the form of visarga. sa occasionally blends with another vowel (as in saī*ṣaḥ) and it is often for emphasis connected with another pronoun as with अहम् (aham), त्वम् (tvam), एष (eṣa), अयम् (ayam) etc.

सो ऽहम्स त्वम्so ’hamsa tvamI (or thou) that very person
; cf. under तद् (tád)

The verb then following in the 1st and 2nd person even if aham or tvam be omitted

स त्वा पृच्छामिsa tvā pṛcchāmiI that very person ask you
स वै नो ब्रूहिsa vai no brūhido thou tell us

Similarly, to denote emphasis, with भवान् (bhavān)

स भावन् विजयाय प्रतिष्ठताम्sa bhāvan vijayāya pratiṣṭhatāmlet your Highness set out for victory

It sometimes (and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas) stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a relatve pronoun or adverb such as (ya), यद् (yad), यदि (yadi), यथा (yathā), चेद् (ce*d); in this position sa may be used pleonastically or as a kind of indeclinable, even where another gender or number is required

स यदि स्थावरा आपो भनन्तिsa yadi sthāvarā āpo bhanantiif those waters are stagnant

In the Sāṃkhya sa, like एष (eṣa), (ka), and (ya), is used to denote पुरुष (puruṣa), "the Universal Soul".

The locative singular form सस्मिन् (sasmin) is primarily used in Ṛg Veda.

Etymology 7[edit]



  1. an inseparable prefix expressing "junction", "conjunction", "possession" (as opposed to a privative), "similarity", "equality"
  2. when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it may be translated by "with", "together or along with", "accompanied by", "added to", "having", "possessing", "containing", "having the same"
    सकोप (sa-kopa)full of anger, enraged, displeased
    साग्नि (sā*gni)together with the fire
    सभार्य (sa-bhārya)with a wife, having a wife
    सद्रोण (sa-droṇa)with a droṇa added to a droṇa
    सधर्मन् (sa-dharman)having the same duties
    सवर्ण (sa-varṇa)having the same colour or appearance, similar, like
  3. "-ly"
    सकोपम् (sa-kopam)angrily
    सोपधि (so*padhi)fraudulently


  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 1111