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Unicode block Devanagari
Codepoint U+0938
See also:



  • IPA(key): /sə/ (may vary by language)



  1. The third sibilant of the Devanagari script. Linguistically it is considered an alveolar sibilant.

See also[edit]



Etymology 1[edit]


  1. the last of the three sibilants, /s/

Etymology 2[edit]



  1. (prosody) an anapest

Etymology 3[edit]



  1. (in music) an abbreviated term for षड्ज ‎(ṣaḍ-ja)

Etymology 4[edit]



  1. a snake
  2. air, wind
  3. a bird
  4. name of Vishnu or Shiva



  1. knowledge
  2. meditation
  3. a carriage road
  4. a fence

Etymology 5[edit]

From the root √san ‎(√san, to procure, bestow, give, distribute).



  1. procuring, bestowing (only at the end of a compound)
    पशुष ‎(paśu-ṣá) — bestowing cattle
    प्रियस ‎(priyá-sá) — granting desired objects

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *só, *séh₂, *tód. Cognate with Ancient Greek ‎(ho), ‎(), τό ‎(), Old Church Slavonic тъ ‎() та ‎(ta), то ‎(to), and Old English se (English the). Confer also suppletive-stem feminine and neuter forms सा ‎(), तद् ‎(tad).



  1. (3rd person pronoun) he
Usage notes[edit]

The final s of the nominative m sás is dropped before all consonants (except before /p/ in RV. v, 2, 4, and before /t/ in RV. viii, 33, 16) and appears only at the end of a sentence in the form of visarga. sa occasionally blends with another vowel (as in saī*ṣaḥ) and it is often for emphasis connected with another pronoun as with अहम् ‎(aham), त्वम् ‎(tvam), एष ‎(eṣa), अयम् ‎(ayam) etc.

so 'ham sa tvam — I (or thou) that very person; cf. under तद् ‎(tád)

The verb then following in the 1st and 2nd person even if aham or tvam be omitted

sa tvā pṛcchāmi — I that very person ask you
sa vai no brūhi — do thou tell us

Similarly, to denote emphasis, with भवान् ‎(bhavān)

sa bhavān vijayāya pratiṣṭhatām — let your Highness set out for victory

It sometimes (and frequently in the Brāhmaṇas) stands as the first word of a sentence preceding a relatve pronoun or adverb such as ‎(ya), यद् ‎(yad), यदि ‎(yadi), यथा ‎(yathā), चेद् ‎(ce*d); in this position sa may be used pleonastically or as a kind of indeclinable, even where another gender or number is required

sa yadi sthāvarā āpo bhananti — if those waters are stagnant

In the Sāṃkhya sa, like एष ‎(eṣa), ‎(ka), and ‎(ya), is used to denote पुरुष ‎(puruṣa), "the Universal Soul".

Etymology 7[edit]



  1. an inseparable prefix expressing "junction", "conjunction", "possession" (as opposed to a privative), "similarity", "equality"
  2. when compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs it may be translated by "with" , "together or along with", "accompanied by", "added to", "having", "possessing", "containing", "having the same"
    सकोप ‎(sa-kopa) — full of anger, enraged, displeased
    साग्नि ‎(sā*gni) — together with the fire
    सभार्य ‎(sa-bhārya) — with a wife, having a wife
    सद्रोण ‎(sa-droṇa) — with a droṇa added to a droṇa
    सधर्मन् ‎(sa-dharman) — having the same duties
    सवर्ण ‎(sa-varṇa) — having the same colour or appearance, similar, like
  3. "-ly"
    सकोपम् ‎(sa-kopam) — angrily
    सोपधि ‎(so*padhi) — fraudulently


  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 1111