พระ

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Thai[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Khmer bra or Angkorian Old Khmer braḥ, braḥh, brah (literally distinguished; divine; excellent; holy; sacred; superior; etc); ultimately from Sanskrit वर (vara, best; excellent; foremost; holy; precious; top; valuable; etc).

Compare Old Khmer vraḥ, vraḥh, vrah, vrahh, vrāʼaḥ, brā; Angkorian Old Khmer vraḥ, vraḥha, vraḥh, vrah, vras, vrāḥ.

Cognate with Modern Khmer ព្រះ (preăh); Lao ພະ (pha), ພຣະ (pha ra).

Pronunciation[edit]

Orthographic พระ
b r a
Phonemic พฺระ
b ̥ r a
Paiboon prá
(standard) IPA(key) /pʰraʔ˦˥/

Noun[edit]

พระ (prá)

  1. god; deity.
  2. priest.
  3. royal person.
  4. representation, as image, statue, sculpture, etc, of a god, priest, or royal person.
  5. (historical)
    1. the Thai noble rank above หลวง (lǔuang) and below พระยา (prá-yaa).
    2. person holding such rank.
  6. male protagonist, as in a literary work, drama, etc.
  7. an honorific for or term of address to gods, high priests, and royals, as well as things and beings relating to them, also used as the head of nouns concerning them.

Usage notes[edit]

When used as the head of nouns according to the last definition, the term may be combined with other terms to form more elegant heads. Examples are:

Terms Literal meaning Application Notes
Gods High priests Royals
พระบรมมหาราช (prá-bɔɔ-rom-má-hǎa-râat-chá-) sacred, supreme, great, royal Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระบรม (prá-bɔɔ-rom-má-) sacred, supreme Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระบรมราช (prá-bɔɔ-rom-má-râat-chá-) sacred, supreme, royal Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระบวร (prá-bɔɔ-wɔɔ-rá-) sacred, exalted Yes check.svg For princes of the Front Palace
พระบวรราช (prá-bɔɔ-wɔɔ-rá-râat-chá) sacred, exalted, royal Yes check.svg For princes of the Front Palace
พระปรม (prá-bpɔɔ-rá-má-) sacred, supreme Yes check.svg For monarchs
พระพุทธ (prá-pút-tá-) sacred, Buddhist Yes check.svg Yes check.svg For Buddhas and Buddhist high priests
พระมหา (prá-má-hǎa-) sacred, great Yes check.svg Yes check.svg Yes check.svg
พระมหาราช (prá-má-hǎa-râat-chá-) sacred, great, royal Yes check.svg
พระมหาสมณ (prá-má-hǎa-sà-má-ná-) sacred, great, ecclesiastical Yes check.svg
พระราช (prá-râat-chá-) sacred, royal Yes check.svg For high-ranking royals
พระวร (prá-wɔɔ-rá-) sacred, excellent Yes check.svg For high-ranking royals
พระสมณ (prá-sà-má-ná-) sacred, ecclesiastical Yes check.svg
พระสุร (prá-sù-rá-) sacred, celestial Yes check.svg For high-ranking royals

See also[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

พระ (prá)

  1. (poetic) a second- or third-person pronoun, applied to gods, priests, royals, and nobles.