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U+2014, —

General Punctuation
U+FE58, ﹘

Small Form Variants
U+FE31, ︱

CJK Compatibility Forms


Alternative forms[edit]

Punctuation mark[edit]

(English name em dash) (Alt + 0151)

  1. Demarcates parenthetical thought. See — —.
    • 1811, [Jane Austen], chapter XV, in Sense and Sensibility [], volume I, London: [] C[harles] Roworth, [], and published by T[homas] Egerton, [], →OCLC, pages 182–183:
      I have explained it to myself in the most satisfactory way;—but you, Elinor, who love to doubt where you can——It will not satisfy you I know; but you shall not talk me out of my trust in it.
      A small gap is visible in the double em dash.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:—.
  2. Indicates a logical consequence.
    Synonym: :
    • 1962, Jack Frohlichstein, Mathematical Fun, Games and Puzzles (in English), Courier Corporation, →ISBN, page 9:
      Bet anyone he can't correctly name the next highest number to every number which you will give him. []
      43 — he will say 44
      87 — he will say 88
      123 — he will say 124
  3. Indicates aposiopesis, an abrupt breaking-off in speech. See also (the ellipsis).
  4. Separates a term from its definition.
    • 2011, Adam Rizvi, Click Start to Begin: Windows XP Basics (in English), Click Start Publishing Ltd., →ISBN, page 22:
      Refresh This will refresh the current folder, updating it with any new files or settings.
  5. Indicates a lack of data in a table.[1]
  6. Alternative form of (horizontal bar; quotation dash; introduces a line of dialogue)
  7. Used to censor letters in obscene words.
    • 1820, Cruikshank, All among the Hottentots capering to shore[1] (painting; in English):
      D—n the Devil .. he be going to eat me!!! — Rot me if he ain't as bloody minded as a Manchester butcher! Oh! dear! Oh! dear!! D—n your outlandish jaws!!
    Dn. [Damn] Fk. [Fuck]
  8. (dated, fiction) Used to replace part or all of a person's name, a place name, a date, or so forth. [chiefly 19th century]
    • 1748, a Lady, in a Letter to her Friend in the Country, A Free Comment on the Late Mr. Wgn’s Apology for His Conduct; Which Clears Up the Obscurities of That Celebrated Posthumous Work, and Dissipates the Clouds in Which the Author Has Thought Proper to Envelope His Meaning (in English), London: [] W. Webb, page 15:
      I hope Ddsy will look to theſe literal Errors, he being the only one of the Trade I can venture to truſt.
    Synonyms: ,
  9. Used as a ditto mark in lists or tables to indicate a repetition of appropriate content above.
    Synonym: —〃—
    • 1950, United States Census, New York, page listing Frank Valasky of New York City:
      Valasky, Frank []
      , Edna M []

Coordinate terms[edit]

  • (ditto mark): see

Derived terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

  • (two-em dash)
  • (three-em dash)

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Joan G. Nagle, Handbook for preparing engineering documents: from concept to completion, 1995, p. 114:
    We can use the word none or N/D (no data), or insert an em dash; any of these entries show that we haven't simply forgotten to fill the cell. N/A is commonly used for not applicable. It's good practice to footnote N/A or N/D the first time it is used.



  1. (stenoscript) the letter sequence ⟨th⟩
    (see: —t that, —r their/there, —z these, —a they, —s this, —oz those)
  2. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of the.
  3. (stenoscript) the sound sequences /(V)nd/, /(V)nt/
  4. (stenoscript) the suffixes or sequences mand, mend, mond, -ment
    (e.g. ⟨a— —⟩ amendment)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (stenoscript) The dash may be written low, along the baseline, or high, at x-height, as convenient for whichever letters it links to. For example, with mo—n for 'more than', the dash is likely to be written at x-height.
  • (stenoscript) When used as punctuation, an en or em dash is doubled, like a long , to distinguish it from its phonetic use.


Russian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ru

Punctuation mark[edit]

  1. Indicates zero (omission) of the present tense of быть (bytʹ). Called тире́ (tirɛ́) in Russian.
    Vrémja — dénʹgi.
    Time is money.
  2. Used in — —.
  3. Replaces in some appositions, where hyphen would be used to connect the appositive word and the word in apposition if neither of them were a phrase.
    Не́которые госуда́рствачле́ны ЕС препя́тствуют размеще́нию бе́женцев на свое́й террито́рии.
    Nékotoryje gosudárstva — člény JeS prepjátstvujut razmeščéniju béžencev na svojéj territórii.
    Some EU member states prevent placement of refugees on their territory.

Usage notes[edit]

  1. is not used when the subject is a pronoun; e.g. я ру́сский (ja rússkij, I am Russian) or with predicative adjectives.
  2. — — are preferred over ( ) when the supplemental information is necessary to understand author's point and can't be dropped.
  3. A dash or a hyphen is used in Russian apposition when the first word (or first words) is not a form of address (e.g. товарищ (tovarišč)) and the second word is an appellative.