いる

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative spelling
居る

/wiru//iru/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Nihon Shoki, completed around 720 CE.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "居る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
居る [ìrú]
Imperative (命令形) 居ろ [ìró]
Key constructions
Passive 居られる られる [ìrárérú]
Causative 居させる させる [ìsásérú]
Potential 居られる られる [ìrárérú]
Volitional 居よう [ìyóꜜò]
Negative 居ない ない [ìnáí]
Negative perfective 居なかった かった [ìnáꜜkàttà]
Formal 居ます [ìmáꜜsù]
Perfective 居た [ìtá]
Conjunctive 居て [ìté]
Hypothetical conditional 居れば [ìréꜜbà]

Verb[edit]

いる (iruintransitive ichidan (stem (i), past いた (ita), historical kana ゐる)

  1. (of animate objects) to exist, to be
    (すず)()です()(なか)さんいますか?
    Suzuki desu ga, Tanaka-san imasu ka?
    This is Suzuki calling; may I speak to Tanaka?
    (literally, “[This] is Suzuki; is Tanaka present?”)
    あなたいない(なに)できない
    anata ga inai to nani mo dekinai
    I can't do anything if you aren't here/there
    (きみ)いた(なつ)
    kimi ga ita natsu
    the summer you were there [with me; by my side]
    (きみ)いた(なつ)
    kimi to ita natsu
    the summer [I] was with you
  2. (of animate objects) to have
    (かれ)()いますか?
    Kareshi imasu ka?
    Do you have a boyfriend?
  3. (after a verb in the て conjunctive form) to be (doing); indicates a progressive or continuous sense; See ている
    (あさ)(はん)()いますか?
    Asagohan o tabete imasu ka?
    Are you eating breakfast?
  4. (Classical Japanese) to sit
    • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      それを()れば、(さん)(すん)ばかりなる(ひと)いと(うつく)しうて()たり。
      Sore wo mireba, sansun bakari naru fito ito utukusiute witari (Classical pronunciation)
      Sore o mireba, sansun bakari naru hito ito utsukushūte itari. (modern pronunciation)
      When he looked at it, there sat a very lovely human being about three sun long.
Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
  • (dialectal) おる (oru)
  • ある (aru, of inanimate objects: to be)

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of いる – see the following entry.
要る
[verb] to be necessary
(This term, いる, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of いる – see the following entry.
煎る
[verb] fry, broil
Alternative spellings
炒る, 熬る
(This term, いる, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of いる – see the following entry.
鋳る
[verb] cast, mint
(This term, いる, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 5[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of いる – see the following entry.
射る
[verb] shoot
[verb] (rare) shoot
(This term, いる, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 6[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of いる – see the following entry.
入る
[verb] to go in; to come in
(This term, いる, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN