おる

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative spelling
居る

/woru//oru/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

Listed in some sources[2][3] as derived from the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) wi of verb wiru (modern いる (iru)) + ある (aru). The conjugation paradigm for woru is indeed the same as aru for Classical and Old Japanese. However, the resulting compounded *wiaru form would ordinarily become yaru or eru via historical phonetic change, and the vowel shift to /o/ is unexplainable in this hypothesis.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "居る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
居る [óꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) 居れ [óꜜrè]
Key constructions
Passive 居られる られ [òráréꜜrù]
Causative 居らせる らせ [òráséꜜrù]
Potential 居れる [òréꜜrù]
Volitional 居ろう [òróꜜò]
Negative 居らない ない [òráꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 居らなかった なかった [òráꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 居ります りま [òrímáꜜsù]
Perfective 居った った [óꜜttà]
Conjunctive 居って って [óꜜttè]
Hypothetical conditional 居れば れば [óꜜrèbà]

Verb[edit]

おる (oruをる (woru)? intransitive godan (stem おり (ori), past おった (otta))

  1. (of animate objects) to exist, to be, to have
    • むかしあるところに一人(ひとり)(よく)ばりの(ぼう)さんがおりました。[2]
      Mukashi aru tokoro ni hitori no yokubari no bōsan ga orimashita.
      Once upon a time, there was a greedy priest somewhere.
  2. (after a verb in the て conjunctive form) to be (doing): indicates a progressive or continuous sense; the verb ending -ておる (-te oru) is often contracted to とる (-toru)
    • ぼくは()をほそめて(うみ)()おった[3]
      Boku wa me o hosomete umi o miteotta
      I was staring at the sea with a squinted eye
  3. (Chūgoku, Shikoku, Kyūshū, after a verb in the conjunctive form) to be (doing); a continuous sense; often transformed to よる (yoru)
    • (まい)(あさ)(わたし)(かん)(のん)(さま)にお(がん)()よるんじゃものきっと(とお)るわ。[4]
      Maiasa, watashi, Kannon-sama ni o-gan o kakeyoru n ja mono kitto tōru wa.
      Since I am making a wish to Kannon every morning, he will certainly pass his exams.
Usage notes[edit]
  • A variation of いる (iru) used mainly in western Japan.
  • In standard Japanese, it is usually used in humble language (謙譲語) or polite language (丁寧語) as おります form or in certain archaic/literary expressions.
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of おる – see the following entries.
折る
[verb] to bend, to fold
織る
[verb] to weave
(This term, おる, is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entries are uncreated: 下る, 愚る.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 886), text here
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. 3.0 3.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ Uwano, Zendo (2002-10-31), “見島方言の用言のアクセント調査報告 [A Report on the Accentual Surveys of Verbs and Adjectives in the Mishima Dialect]”, in 環太平洋の「消滅に瀕した言語」にかんする緊急調査研究 [Endangered languages of the Pacific Rim]‎[1], ISSN 1346-082X
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN