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It-一.png
U+4E00, 一
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00
䷿
[U+4DFF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E01]
U+2F00, ⼀
KANGXI RADICAL ONE
[unassigned: U+2EF4–U+2EFF]

[U+2EF3]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F01]
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
一-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
1 stroke

(radical 1, +0, 1 stroke, cangjie input 一 (M), four-corner 10000)

  1. Kangxi radical #1, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №1

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 75, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1
  • Dae Jaweon: page 129, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 1, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E00

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


Chinese[edit]

Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
一-bronze-shang.svg 一-oracle.svg 一-bronze.svg 一-bronze-spring.svg 一-bronze-warring.svg 一-silk.svg 一-slip.svg 一-ancient.svg 一-seal.svg 一-bigseal.svg 一-clerical.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事): a horizontal stroke, indicating the number “one”.

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial

𠤪
𭍶

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔit. Descendants from the *ʔit etymon account for the majority of the dialectal forms for “one” in Chinese (Mandarin, Jin, Gan, Hakka, Hui, Xiang, Yue, Wu groups, etc.).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Subject to retrograde tone sandhi (see Wikipedia for details):
    • before fourth tone, pronounced with second tone;
    • before any other tone, pronounced with fourth tone;
    • when final (or at the end of a multi-syllable word), pronounced with the original tone (first tone);
    • when used in a series of numbers, as a part of a number, in dates, or in addresses, pronounced with the original tone (first tone).
  • When used between two reduplicated words, it may be pronounced with neutral tone.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (48)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiɪt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔit̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjet̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔit̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiĕt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭĕt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ĕt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jat1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔjit ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔi[t]/
    English one

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14833
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qliɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. one
      /   ―  cháng duǎn  ―  one short and one long
      /   ―  shāng  ―  one dead, one injured
        ―  gāo   ―  one high and one low
        ―  tiān   ―  one day and one night
      [Cantonese]  ―  jat1 jat6 jat1 je6 [Jyutping]  ―  one day and one night
        ―  zuǒ yòu  ―  one left, one right
    2. each; every
      蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
      苹果 [MSC, simp.]
      Gěi tā men rén yī kē píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
      Give them an apple each.
    3. single; alone
      獨自 / 独自  ―  dúzì rén  ―  a solitary person, one person
      /   ―  zhuān  ―  single-minded, monogamous
    4. whole; entire; all: throughout
      他們海灘下午 [MSC, trad.]
      他们海滩下午 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen zài hǎitān shàng wán le xiàwǔ. [Pinyin]
      They played the whole afternoon on the beach.
      整整24小時 [MSC, trad.]
      整整24小时 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhěngzhěng nián dōu huā le 24 xiǎoshí. [Pinyin]
      All days took 24 hours for a year.
    5. same; identical
      大小  ―  dàxiǎo bù   ―  not having the same size
      大細 / 大细 [Cantonese]  ―  daai6 sai3 bat1 jat1 [Jyutping]  ―  not having the same size
    6. (Classical Chinese) another; alternative
      蟋蟀促織 / 蟋蟀促织  ―  xīshuài, míng cùzhī  ―  Crickets, also called cùzhī [lit. another name [being] cùzhī].
    7. With the verb modified reduplicated, expressing the transience of the verb:
      1. Indicating that the action has occurred only once
          ―  kàn kàn  ―  to have a look
        [Cantonese]  ―  mong6 jat1 mong6 [Jyutping]  ―  to have a look
      2. Indicating the intention to try
          ―  suàn suàn  ―  to try to calculate it
        / [Cantonese]  ―  gai3 jat1 gai3 [Jyutping]  ―  to try to calculate it
    8. once; as soon as; upon
      OP  ―  dào OP jiù kǎ  ―  it slows down once I get to the opening
      照片立即成為眾人矚目焦點 [MSC, trad.]
      照片立即成为众人瞩目焦点 [MSC, simp.]
      pāi le zhàopiàn, tā jiù lìjí chéngwèi zhòngrén zhǔmù de jiāodiǎn. [Pinyin]
      As soon as I took a picture, she ran towards the limelight.
    9. for the first time; at the beginning
      見如故 / 见如故  ―  jiànrúgù  ―  to hit it off
    10. surprisingly; unexpectedly
      至於此 / 至于此  ―  zhìyúcǐ  ―  How did things ever get so far?
    11. (LGBT, slang) a top
      /   ―  hào  ―  a top
      alt. forms: 1
    Usage notes[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]
    See also[edit]
    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)

    十千 (Malaysia, Singapore)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    Quotations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:一.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms

    Form used as the colloquial reading for “one” in most Min varieties: Fuzhou/Fuding suoʔ8, Fuqing θyo8, Gutian syøʔ8, Ningde søʔ8, Zhouning sɔʔ8, Putian ɬoʔ8, Xiamen/Quanzhou/Yongchun/Zhangzhou tsit̚8, Leizhou/Haikou ziak8, Longyan tse4, Youxi ɕie7, Jian'ou/Songxi tsi5, Jianyang tsi8. Whether all of the forms above are related and their origins remain unelucidated; they may be derived from (cf. (single, alone); often written when read with the colloquial reading), (< *tjak ~ g-t(j)ik) or . Some Fujian dialects use and for “one”.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Min) one
    2. (Min) each; every
    3. (Min) whole; entire; all

    Etymology 3[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Contraction of 一個一个 (yī gè) (Zhou, 1998).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Beijing) one
    Usage notes[edit]
    • This is pronounced as regardless of the succeeding tone (Tao, 2002). It is grammatically different from other tone sandhis of ; it is used directly with a nominal without a classifier.

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    See 一/derived terms § Japanese.

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  0 1 2  > 
        Cardinal :
    Kanji in this term
    いち
    Grade: 1
    goon

    /itɨ//it͡sɨ//it͡ɕɨ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Compare modern Hokkien reading it.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (financial/formal form) ,
    • (ancient form) 𪩩

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (いち) (ichi

    1. one, 1

    Usage notes[edit]

    • (いち) is always omitted before (じゅう) (, ten) and (ひゃく) (hyaku, hundred), but never before the "myriad scale digit names" including (まん) (man, ten thousand), (おく) (oku, hundred million), (ちょう) (chō, trillion) and their combinations.
    • When before (せん) (sen, thousand), (いち) is omitted when (せん) is not directly followed by (まん), i.e. not before (せん)(まん) (senman, ten million), and the omission is optional.
      (せん)(ひゃく)(じゅう)(いち)
      senhyakujūichi
      1,111
      (ひゃく)(まん)
      hyakuman
      1,000,000
      (いっ)(せん)(まん)
      issenman
      10,000,000
      (せん)(いち)(まん)
      sen'ichiman
      10,010,000

    Noun[edit]

    (いち) (ichi

    1. one, 1
    2. term relating to the number one:
      1. the first in order, foremost
      2. the beginning
      3. the best
      4. a kind of; one of something
      5. (card games) an ace
    3. unity
    4. the bottom string of a shamisen or other Japanese musical instrument
    Idioms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (いち) (-ichi

    1. the best in …; the most in …
      ()(きゅう)()(らく)()(ちゅう)(いち)
      Chikyū no goraku wa uchū-ichi!
      The entertainments on the earth are the best in the universe!
      ()(かい)(いち)かわいい
      Sekai-ichi kawaii yo.
      It's the cutest in the world.

    Affix[edit]

    (いち) (ichi

    1. one, 1
    2. first, foremost
    3. once
    4. best, number one
    5. bunch, bundle
    6. entirely, wholly
    7. certain one
    8. merely, only

    Proper noun[edit]

    (いち) (Ichi

    1. a surname

    Derived terms[edit]

    See 一/derived terms § Japanese pronunciation 1.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いつ
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    /itʉ//it͡sʉ//it͡su/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いつ) (itsu

    1. one
    2. the same

    Affix[edit]

    (いつ) (itsu

    1. one, 1
    2. first, foremost
    3. group
    4. entirely, wholly
    5. other
    6. merely, only

    Proper noun[edit]

    (いつ) (Itsu

    1. a female given name

    Derived terms[edit]

    See 一/derived terms § Japanese pronunciation 2.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨pi1to2 → */pʲitə//ɸito//hito/

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly an apophonic form of (futa, two). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (ひと) (hito

    1. one, 1

    Prefix[edit]

    (ひと) (hito-

    1. one, single
    2. all
    3. a bit
    4. a certain time

    Derived terms[edit]

    See 一/derived terms § Japanese pronunciation 3.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Shortening of hito above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    () (hi

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Long-pronounced form of hi above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (ひい) (

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Borrowing from Mandarin () in the Qing Dynasty.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (イー) (ī

    1. one, 1

    Derived terms[edit]

    See 一/derived terms § Japanese pronunciation 4.

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はじめ
    Grade: 1
    nanori

    From 始め (hajime, beginning, first), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 始める (hajimeru, to begin something).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. a unisex given name
    2. a surname

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Japanese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Regular (れい) (rei)
    (ゼロ) (zero)
    (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
    () (shi)
    () (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
    (しち) (shichi)
    (はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
    () (ku)
    (じゅう) ()
    Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
    90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
    Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
    (いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
    (さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
    Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
    1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
    (いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Korean numbers (edit)
    10
    [a], [b] ←  0 1 2  → 
        Native: 하나 (hana), (han)
        Sino-Korean: (il)
        Hanja:
        Ordinal: 첫째 (cheotjjae)
        Number of days: 하루 (haru)

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᅵᇙ〮 (Yale: qílq)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] ᄒᆞᆫ〮 (Yale: hón) 일〮 (Yale: íl)


    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (han il))

    1. Hanja form? of (one).

    Compounds[edit]

    See 一/derived terms § Korean.

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: nhất[1][2][3][4], nhứt[3][5][4]
    : Nôm readings: nhất[1][2][3], nhắt[1][6], nhứt[2]

    1. Hán tự form of nhất (one).
    2. Nôm form of nhất (first; most).
    3. Nôm form of nhắt (teeny; tiny).

    Compounds[edit]

    See 一/derived terms § Vietnamese.

    References[edit]