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See also: , [U+2013 EN DASH], - [U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS], [U+2212 MINUS SIGN], [U+2014 EM DASH], [U+30FC KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK], [U+4E28 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E28], [U+3127 BOPOMOFO LETTER I], [U+31AA BOPOMOFO LETTER INN], and [U+4EA0 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EA0]
It-一.png
U+4E00, 一
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00
䷿
[U+4DFF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E01]
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
一-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
1 stroke

(radical 1, +0, 1 stroke, cangjie input 一 (M), four-corner 10000)

  1. Kangxi radical #1, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №1

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 75, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1
  • Dae Jaweon: page 129, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 1, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E00

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial

𠤪
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
ACC-B00002.svg 一-oracle.svg 一-bronze.svg ACC-B00014.svg ACC-B00015.svg 一-silk.svg 一-slip.svg 弌-ancient.svg 一-seal.svg 一-bigseal.svg 一-clerical.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事): a horizontal stroke, indicating the number “one”.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔit. Descendants from the *ʔit etymon account for the majority of the dialectal forms for “one” in Chinese (Mandarin, Jin, Gan, Hakka, Hui, Xiang, Yue, Wu groups, etc.).

In Min, an additional unrelated form is found and used as the colloquial reading for “one”. Compare:

Fuzhou/Fuding suoʔ8, Fuqing θyo8, Gutian syøʔ8, Ningde søʔ8, Zhouning sɔʔ8, Putian ɬoʔ8, Xiamen/Quanzhou/Yongchun/Zhangzhou tsit̚8, Leizhou/Haikou ziak8, Longyan tse4, Youxi ɕie7, Jian'ou/Songxi tsi5, Jianyang tsi8.

Whether all of the forms above are related and their origins remain unelucidated; they may be derived from (cf. (single, alone)), (< *tjak ~ g-t(j)ik) or .

Some Fujian dialects use and for “one”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Subject to retrograde tone sandhi (see Wikipedia for details):
    • before fourth tone, pronounced with second tone;
    • before any other tone, pronounced with fourth tone;
    • when final (or at the end of a multi-syllable word), pronounced with the original tone (first tone);
    • when used in a series of numbers, as a part of a number, in dates, or in addresses, pronounced with the original tone (first tone).
  • When used between two reduplicated words, it may be pronounced with neutral tone.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • cì - colloquial;
    • ĭ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siŏh - colloquial;
    • ék - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chi̍t - colloquial;
    • it - literary.
    Note:
    • zêg8 - colloquial;
    • ig4, êg4 - literary (ig4 - other places, êg4 - Jieyang).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (48)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiɪt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔit̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjet̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔit̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiĕt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭĕt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ĕt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔjit ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔi[t]/
    English one

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14833
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qliɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. one
      /   ―  cháng duǎn  ―  one short and one long
      /   ―  shāng  ―  one dead, one injured
        ―  gāo   ―  one high and one low
        ―  tiān   ―  one day and one night
      [Cantonese]  ―  jat1 jat6 jat1 je6 [Jyutping]  ―  one day and one night
        ―  zuǒ yòu  ―  one left, one right
    2. each; every
      蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
      苹果 [MSC, simp.]
      Gěi tā men rén yī kē píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
      Give them an apple each.
    3. single; alone
      獨自 / 独自  ―  dúzì rén  ―  solitary
      /   ―  zhuān  ―  single-minded, monogamous
    4. whole; entire; all: throughout
      他們海灘下午 [MSC, trad.]
      他们海滩下午 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen zài hǎitān shàng wán le xiàwǔ. [Pinyin]
      They played the whole afternoon on the beach.
      整整24小時 [MSC, trad.]
      整整24小时 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhěngzhěng nián dōu huā le 24 xiǎoshí. [Pinyin]
      All days took 24 hours for a year.
    5. same; identical
      大小  ―  dàxiǎo bù   ―  not having the same size
      大細 / 大细 [Cantonese]  ―  daai6 sai3 bat1 jat1 [Jyutping]  ―  not having the same size
    6. (Classical Chinese) another; alternative
      蟋蟀促織 / 蟋蟀促织  ―  xīshuài, míng cùzhī  ―  Crickets, also called cùzhī [lit. another name [being] cùzhī].
    7. With the verb modified reduplicated, expressing the transience of the verb:
      1. Indicating that the action has occurred only once
          ―  kàn kàn  ―  to have a look
        [Cantonese]  ―  mong6 jat1 mong6 [Jyutping]  ―  to have a look
      2. Indicating the intention to try
          ―  suàn suàn  ―  to try to calculate it
        / [Cantonese]  ―  gai3 jat1 gai3 [Jyutping]  ―  to try to calculate it
    8. once; as soon as; upon
      OP  ―  dào OP jiù kǎ  ―  it slows down once I get to the opening
      照片立即成為眾人矚目焦點 [MSC, trad.]
      照片立即成为众人瞩目焦点 [MSC, simp.]
      pāi le zhàopiàn, tā jiù lìjí chéngwèi zhòngrén zhǔmù de jiāodiǎn. [Pinyin]
      As soon as I took a picture, she ran towards the limelight.
    9. for the first time; at the beginning
      見如故 / 见如故  ―  jiànrúgù  ―  to hit it off
    10. surprisingly; unexpectedly
      至於此 / 至于此  ―  zhìyúcǐ  ―  How did things ever get so far?
    11. (LGBT, slang) a top
      /   ―  hào  ―  a top
      alt. forms: 1 ()

    Usage notes[edit]

    Such is grammatically different from other tone sandhis of ; it is used in the structure + nominal when in places where it can be replaced with 一個一个 (yī gè), from which it was reduced.

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (いち) (ichi); (いつ) (itsu)
    • Korean: (, il)
    • Vietnamese: nhất ()

    Others:

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  0 1 2  > 
        Cardinal :
    Kanji in this term
    いち
    Grade: 1
    goon

    /itɨ//it͡sɨ//it͡ɕɨ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (financial/formal form) ,
    • (ancient form) 𪩩

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (いち) (ichi

    1. one, 1

    Usage notes[edit]

    • (いち) is always omitted before (じゅう) (, ten) and (ひゃく) (hyaku, hundred), but never before the "myriad scale digit names" including (まん) (man, ten thousand), (おく) (oku, hundred million), (ちょう) (chō, trillion) and their combinations.
    • When before (せん) (sen, thousand), (いち) is omitted when (せん) is not directly followed by (まん), i.e. not before (せん)(まん) (senman, ten million), and the omission is optional.
      (せん)(ひゃく)(じゅう)(いち)
      senhyakujūichi
      1,111
      (ひゃく)(まん)
      hyakuman
      1,000,000
      (いっ)(せん)(まん)
      issenman
      10,000,000
      (せん)(いち)(まん)
      sen'ichiman
      10,010,000
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いち) (ichi

    1. one, 1
    2. term relating to the number one:
      1. the first in order, foremost
      2. the beginning
      3. the best
      4. a kind of; one of something
      5. (card games) an ace
    3. unity
    4. the bottom string of a shamisen or other Japanese musical instrument
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (いち) (-ichi

    1. the best in …; the most in …
      ()(きゅう)()(らく)()(ちゅう)(いち)
      Chikyū no goraku wa uchū-ichi!
      The entertainments on the earth are the best in the universe!
      ()(かい)(いち)かわいいよ。
      Sekai-ichi kawaii yo.
      It's the cutest in the world.

    Affix[edit]

    (いち) (ichi

    1. one, 1
    2. first, foremost
    3. once
    4. best, number one
    5. bunch, bundle
    6. entirely, wholly
    7. certain one
    8. merely, only
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (いち) (Ichi

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いつ
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    /itʉ//it͡sʉ//it͡su/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いつ) (itsu

    1. one
    2. the same
    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (いつ) (itsu

    1. one, 1
    2. first, foremost
    3. group
    4. entirely, wholly
    5. other
    6. merely, only
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (いつ) (Itsu

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨pi1to2 → */pʲitə//ɸito//hito/

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly an apophonic form of (futa, two). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (ひと) (hito

    1. one, 1
    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (ひと) (hito-

    1. one, single
    2. all
    3. a bit
    4. a certain time
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Shortening of hito above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    () (hi

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Long-pronounced form of hi above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (ひい) (

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Borrowing from Mandarin () in the Qing Dynasty.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (イー) (ī

    1. one, 1
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はじめ
    Grade: 1
    nanori

    From 始め (hajime, beginning, first), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 始める (hajimeru, to begin something).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. a unisex given name
    2. a surname

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Japanese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Regular (れい) (rei)
    (ゼロ) (zero)
    (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
    () (shi)
    () (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
    (しち) (shichi)
    (はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
    () (ku)
    (じゅう) ()
    Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
    90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
    Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
    (いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
    (さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
    Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
    1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
    (いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2006, Lua error: not enough memory (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, Lua error: not enough memory (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory. Recorded as Middle Korean Lua error: not enough memory (Yale: il) in Hunmong Jahoe (Lua error: not enough memory), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Hanja form? of Lua error: not enough memory.

    Compounds[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Lua error: not enough memory one

    References[edit]

    • Lua error: not enough memory (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, Lua error: not enough memory. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory.
    2. Nôm form of Lua error: not enough memory.
    3. Nôm form of Lua error: not enough memory.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]