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See also: , [U+2013 EN DASH], - [U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS], [U+2212 MINUS SIGN], [U+2014 EM DASH], [U+30FC KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK], [U+4E28 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E28], [U+3127 BOPOMOFO LETTER I], [U+31AA BOPOMOFO LETTER INN], and [U+4EA0 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EA0]


U+4E00, 一
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00
䷿
[U+4DFF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E01]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
1 stroke
Stroke order
一-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 1, +0, 1 stroke, cangjie input 一 (M), four-corner 10000)

  1. Kangxi radical #1, .
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №1

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 75, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1
  • Dae Jaweon: page 129, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 1, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E00

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms financial
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
ACC-B00002.svg 一-oracle.svg 一-bronze.svg ACC-B00014.svg ACC-B00015.svg 一-silk.svg 一-slip.svg 弌-ancient.svg 一-seal.svg 一-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qliɡ
*qliɡ

A horizontal stroke, indicating the number one.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔit. Descendants from the *ʔit etymon account for the majority of the dialectal forms for ONE in Chinese (Mandarin, Jin, Gan, Hakka, Hui, Xiang, Yue, Wu groups, etc.).

In Min, an additional unrelated form is found and used as the colloquial reading for ONE. Compare:

Fuzhou/Fuding suoʔ8, Fuqing θyo8, Gutian syøʔ8, Ningde søʔ8, Zhouning sɔʔ8, Putian ɬoʔ8, Xiamen/Quanzhou/Yongchun/Zhangzhou tsit̚8, Leizhou/Haikou ziak8, Longyan tse4, Youxi ɕie7, Jian'ou/Songxi tsi5, Jianyang tsi8.

Whether all of the forms above are related and their origins remain unelucidated; they may be derived from (cf. (single, alone)), (< *tjak ~ g-t(j)ik) or .

Some Fujian dialects use and for ONE.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Pronounced (yāo) when spelling phone number, one on dice or dominoes.
  • Subject to retrograde tone sandhi (see Wikipedia for details):
    • before fourth tone, pronounced with second tone;
    • before any other tone, pronounced with fourth tone;
    • when final (or at the end of a multi-syllable word), pronounced with the original tone (first tone);
    • when used in a series of numbers, as a part of a number, in dates, or in addresses, pronounced with the original tone (first tone).
  • When used between two reduplicated words, pronounced with neutral tone.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • cì - colloquial;
    • ĭ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siŏh - colloquial;
    • ék - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chi̍t - colloquial;
    • it - literary.
    Note:
    • zêg8 - colloquial;
    • ig4, êg4 - literary (ig4 - other places, êg4 - Jieyang).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (48)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiɪt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔit̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjet̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔit̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiĕt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭĕt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ĕt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔjit ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔi[t]/
    English one

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14833
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qliɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. one
      • /   ―  cháng duǎn  ―  one short and one long
      • /   ―  shāng  ―  one dead, one injured
      •   ―  gāo   ―  one high and one low
      •   ―  tiān   ―  one day and one night
      •   ―  zuǒ yòu  ―  one left, one right
    2. each; every
    3. single; alone
    4. whole; entire; all: throughout
    5. same; identical
      • 大小  ―  dàxiǎo bù   ―  having different sizes
    6. another; alternative
      • 蟋蟀促織 / 蟋蟀促织  ―  xīshuài, míng cùzhī  ―  Crickets, also called cùzhī [lit. another name [being] cùzhī].
    7. With the verb modified reduplicated, expressing the transience of the verb.
      1. Indicating that the action has occurred only once.
        •   ―  kàn kàn  ―  to have a look
      2. Indicating the intention to try.
        •   ―  suàn suàn  ―  to try to calculate it
    8. once; as soon as; upon
    9. for the first time; at the beginning
    10. surprisingly; unexpectedly
    11. (LGBT, slang) top
      alt. forms: 1

    Usage notes[edit]

    See pronunciation section for tone sandhi rules in Modern Standard Chinese.

    In the Beijing dialect, there is a kind of tone sandhi in which is pronounced as regardless of the succeeding tone (Tao, 2002):

    Such is grammatically different from other tone sandhis of ; it is only used in the structure + noun, and only in places where it can be replaced with 一個一个 (yīge), from which it was reduced.

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (いち) (ichi);  (いつ) (itsu)
    • Korean: (, il)
    • Vietnamese: nhất ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. one
    2. "one" radical (いち)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (Financial/formal form):

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いち
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi
    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  0 1 2  > 
        Cardinal :

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いち, rōmaji ichi)

    1. one, 1
    2. term relating to the number one:
      1. first in order, foremost
      2. the beginning
      3. the best
      4. a kind of; one of something
      5. (card games) ace
    3. unity
    4. the bottom string of a shamisen or other Japanese musical instrument
    Derived terms[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana いち, rōmaji ichi)

    1. (cardinal) one, 1

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana いち, rōmaji Ichi)

    1. a surname
    Idioms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いつ
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いつ, rōmaji itsu)

    1. one
    2. the same
    Derived terms[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana いつ, rōmaji itsu)

    1. one, 1

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana いつ, rōmaji Itsu)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    *⟨pi2to2 → */pɨtə//fito//hito/

    From Old Japanese.

    Apophonic form of (futa, two).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana ひと, rōmaji hito)

    1. (cardinal) one, 1
    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (hiragana ひと, rōmaji hito-)

    1. prefix to nouns and verbs:
      1. one, single
      2. all
      3. a bit
      4. a certain time
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Shortening of hito above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji hi)

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Long-pronounced form of hi above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana ひい, rōmaji )

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Borrowing from Chinese ().

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (katakana イー, katakana イイ, rōmaji ī)

    1. one, 1
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はじめ
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    From 始め (hajime, beginning, first), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 始める (hajimeru, to begin something).

    The use of the kanji for "one" is an example of jukujikun (熟字訓).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana はじめ, rōmaji Hajime)

    1. a unisex given name
    2. a surname

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Numbers in Japanese
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
     (れい) (rei)
    ゼロ (zero)
     (いち) (ichi)  () (ni)  (さん) (san)  (よん) (yon)
     () (shi)
     () (go)  (ろく) (roku)  (なな) (nana)
     (しち) (shichi)
     (はち) (hachi)  (きゅう) (kyū)
     () (ku)
    10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
     (じゅう) () 十一 (じゅういち) (jūichi)  (じゅう) () (jūni)  (じゅう) (さん) (jūsan)  (じゅう) (よん) (jūyon)
     (じゅう) () (jūshi)
     (じゅう) () (jūgo) 十六 (じゅうろく) (jūroku) 十七 (じゅうなな) (jūnana)
    十七 (じゅうしち) (jūshichi)
    十八 (じゅうはち) (jūhachi)  (じゅう) (きゅう) (jūkyū)
     (じゅう) () (jūku)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 하나 (hana il))

    1. one

    Numeral[edit]

    (il) (hangeul )

    1. (cardinal) one

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nhất, nhắt, nhứt)

    1. one

    References[edit]