三十

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Chinese[edit]

three ten
simp. and trad.
(三十)
anagram 十三
Chinese cardinal numbers
 <  29 30 31  > 
    Cardinal : 三十

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Initial () (16) (25)
Final () (143) (141)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑm/ /d͡ʑiɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑm/ /d͡ʑip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/ /d͡ʑjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sam/ /d͡ʑip̚/
Li
Rong
/sɑm/ /ʑiəp̚/
Wang
Li
/sɑm/ /ʑĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/ /ʑi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sān shí
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ sam › ‹ dzyip ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?) /*t.[ɡ]əp/
English three ten

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
No. 10963 11452
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*suːm/ /*ɡjub/

Numeral[edit]

三十

  1. thirty; 30
    昨天收到三十垃圾短信 [MSC, trad.]
    昨天收到三十垃圾短信 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ zuótiān shōudào le sānshí duō tiáo lājī duǎnxìn. [Pinyin]
    I received over 30 spam text messages yesterday.

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (三十):

Japanese[edit]

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  29 30 31  > 
    Cardinal : 三十

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
じゅう
Grade: 1
on’yomi

*/sanzipu//sanʑifu//sanʑiu//sand͡ʑuː/

From Middle Chinese 三十 (MC sɑm d͡ʑiɪp̚). Analyzable as (san, three) + (, ten).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

三十 (hiragana さんじゅう, rōmaji sanjū, historical hiragana さんじふ)

  1. thirty

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨mi1so1/miso/

From Old Japanese. Compound of (mi, three) +‎ (so, ten).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

三十 (hiragana みそ, rōmaji miso)

  1. thirty

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
Irregular

/mi so ti//misot͡ɕi/

From Old Japanese. Compound of 三十 (miso, thirty) +‎ (chi, road), where the road sense of (chi) is used metaphorically as a unit of time, usually expressing a sense of day, but also sometimes used to mean year.[2]

This reading is obsolete, and has been superseded by misoji below.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

三十 (hiragana みそち, rōmaji misochi)

  1. (obsolete) thirty
  2. (obsolete) thirty years of age

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
Irregular

Shift from earlier misochi (see above).[1] The -chi changes to -ji as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

三十 (hiragana みそじ, rōmaji misoji, historical hiragana みそぢ)

  1. (uncommon) thirty
  2. (uncommon) thirty years of age

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Numeral[edit]

三十 (samsip) (hangeul 삼십)

  1. Hanja form? of 삼십 (thirty).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

三十

  1. Hán tự form of tam thập, “thirty”