下二段活用

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
しも
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2

A compound of 下二段 (shimo nidan, lower bigrade) and 活用 (katsuyō, conjugation). Lower bigrade verbs eventually change into lower monograde. Lower refers to the -e- suffix and contrasts with the upper -i-, while bigrade refers to the two-way e/u variation.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Tokyo) もにだんかつよー [shìmó nídáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [6])[1]
  • IPA(key): [ɕimo̞ ɲ̟idã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

Noun[edit]

下二段活用 (hiragana しもにだんかつよう, rōmaji shimo nidan katsuyō, historical hiragana しもにだんくわつよう)

  1. (grammar) lower bigrade conjugation, a verbal conjugation class with the following inflections: e | e | u | uru | ure | e[yo]. Examples:
Imperfective (未然形) Continuative (連用形) Terminal (終止形) Attributive (連体形) Realis (已然形)
(modern Hypothetical (仮定形))
Imperative (命令形)
uk- "to receive" uk-e2 uk-e2 uk-u uk-uru uk-ure uk-e2[yo2]
nig- "to flee" nig-e2 nig-e2 nig-u nig-uru nig-ure nig-e2[yo2]
tab- "to eat" tab-e2 tab-e2 tab-u tab-uru tab-ure tab-e2[yo2]

The subscripts in the table above indicate differences in vowel class that were already being lost in Old Japanese. It remains unclear what those different vowel classes may have meant. See the Syllables section in the Wikipedia article on Old Japanese for more details.

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN