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U+4E32, 串
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E32

[U+4E31]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E33]
U+F905, 串
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F905

[U+F904]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F906]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 2, +6, 7 strokes, cangjie input 中中 (LL), four-corner 50006, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 80, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 80
  • Dae Jaweon: page 162, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 30, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E32

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𰀁

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Transcribed ancient scripts
串-bronze-shang.svg 串-silk.svg 串-bigseal.svg


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – objects strung together.

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with 穿 (OC *kʰljon, *kʰljons, “to pierce through; to wear”), (OC *koːn, *koːns, “to penetrate”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • chhǹg - vernacular;
  • chhoàn - literary.
Note:
  • cuang3 - Shantou;
  • cuêng3 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1647
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰjons/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to string together; to link up
    2. string; chain; series of objects
    3. skewer
      /   ―  chuànshāo  ―  food roasted on a skewer
    4. Classifier for strung, bunched or clustered objects.
      珠子  ―  chuàn zhūzǐ  ―  a string of beads
      鞭炮  ―  chuàn biānpào  ―  a string of firecrackers
      葡萄  ―  chuàn pútáo  ―  a bunch of grapes
    5. to gang up on; to conspire; to collaborate
    6. to cross; to criss-cross; to traverse to; to mix (undesirably)
    7. to pay a visit to; to visit; to move about
    8. to play a role; to act; to perform
        ―  chuàn  ―  to give a guest performance
    9. (Cantonese) to spell a word in Roman letters
    10. (Cantonese, slang, may be derived from 串聯 during the Cultural Revolution) cocksure; arrogant; cocky
    11. (Cantonese, slang, by extension) to be cocksure; to be arrogant; to be cocky
    12. (Cantonese, slang) sarcastic

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (70)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠuanH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷᵚanH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɐnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaɨnH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuanH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kwanH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwanH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwænH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁro[n]-s/
    English custom

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1646
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kroːns/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to get close to; to fawn on; to be obsequious to; to curry favor with
    2. people on intimate terms
    3. habit; custom
    4. to joke; to banter

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 串夷.

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    From (MC *t͡ɕʰiuᴇnH, “skewer; traverse; visit; perform”):

    From (MC kˠuanH, “curry favor; custom, habit”):

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くし
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    /kusi//kuɕi/

    From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Nihon Shoki, finished CE 720.

    Cognate with (kushi, comb).[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くし) (kushi

    1. a skewer, spit
      Synonyms: 串刺し (kushizashi), 焼き串 (yakigushi)
    2. any slender object that can pierce other objects, especially:
      1. (Shinto) Short for 玉串 (tamagushi): a branch of a (sakaki) tree used as a Shinto offering
        • c. 11201140, Konjaku Monogatarishū (book 24, story 51)
          ()()(へい)(くし)(かき)(つけ)(たてまつ)りたりける
          sono gohei no kushi ni kakitsukete tatematsuritarikeru
          That branch of streamers, written and presented...
      2. Short for 幕串 (makugushi): a post used to hang a curtain
    3. a candle's wick
      Synonym: (shin)
    4. (slang, computing) a proxy server
      (ちゅう)(ごく)(くし)
      Chūgoku kushi
      a Chinese proxy
      Synonyms: プロクシ (purokushi), プロクシサーバー (purokushi sābā), 串鯖 (kushisaba)

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (くし) (Kushi

    1. a surname

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠuanH). Recorded as Middle Korean 관〮 (Yale: kwán) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 익힐 (ikhil gwan))

    1. Hanja form? of (to become habituated to something).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Late Middle Chinese (LMC *tʂʰyanH).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 꿰미 (kkwemi cheon))

    1. Hanja form? of (string; chain; skewer).
    2. Hanja form? of (to string; to thread; to skewer).
    3. Hanja form? of (receipt).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Misreading of Middle Chinese (MC t͡ʃʰˠɛnX).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 꼬챙이 (kkochaeng-i chan))

    1. Hanja form? of (skewer).
      Synonym: ( (chan))

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Related to Middle Korean 곶다〮 (Yale: kwòctá).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 이름 (ttang ireum got))

    1. Hanja form? of (used as a suffix in placenames).
    2. Hanja form? of (cape).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *kusi.

    Cognate with (kusi, comb).[1]

    Noun[edit]

    (kusi) (kana くし)

    1. any slender object that can pierce other objects

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (kushi)

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: quán ((cổ)(hoạn)(thiết))[2][1][3]
    : Nôm readings: xiên[2], xuyên[2], xuyến[2], quán[1]

    1. Hán tự form of quán (to string an object).

    References[edit]