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U+4E32, 串
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E32

[U+4E31]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E33]
U+F905, 串
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F905

[U+F904]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F906]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 2, +6, 7 strokes, cangjie input 中中 (LL), four-corner 50006, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource

  • KangXi: page 80, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 80
  • Dae Jaweon: page 162, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 30, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E32

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ⿻二丨

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Transcribed ancient scripts
串-bronze-shang.svg 串-silk.svg 串-bigseal.svg


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – objects strung together.

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with 穿 (OC *kʰljon, *kʰljons, “to pierce through; to wear”), (OC *koːn, *koːns, “to penetrate”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • chhǹg - vernacular;
  • chhoàn - literary.
Note:
  • cuang3 - Shantou;
  • cuêng3 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1647
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰjons/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to string together; to link up
    2. string; chain; series of objects
    3. skewer
      /   ―  chuànshāo  ―  food roasted on a skewer
    4. Classifier for strung, bunched or clustered objects.
      珠子  ―  chuàn zhūzǐ  ―  a string of beads
      鞭炮  ―  chuàn biānpào  ―  a string of firecrackers
      葡萄  ―  chuàn pútáo  ―  a bunch of grapes
    5. to gang up on; to conspire; to collaborate
    6. to cross; to criss-cross; to traverse to; to mix (undesirably)
    7. to pay a visit to; to visit; to move about
    8. to play a role; to act; to perform
        ―  chuàn  ―  to give a guest performance
    9. (Cantonese) to spell a word in Roman letters
    10. (Cantonese, slang, may be derived from 串聯 during the Cultural Revolution) cocksure; arrogant; cocky
    11. (Cantonese, slang) sarcastic

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (70)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠuanH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷᵚanH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɐnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaɨnH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuanH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kwanH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwanH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwænH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁro[n]-s/
    English custom

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1646
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kroːns/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to get close to; to fawn on; to be obsequious to; to curry favor with
    2. people on intimate terms
    3. habit; custom
    4. to joke; to banter

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 串夷.

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    From (MC *t͡ɕʰiuᴇnH, “skewer; traverse; visit; perform”):

    From (MC kˠuanH, “curry favor; custom, habit”):

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くし
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    /kusi//kuɕi/

    From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Nihon Shoki, finished CE 720.

    Cognate with (kushi, comb).[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

     (くし) (kushi)

    1. a skewer, spit
      Synonyms: 串刺し (kushizashi), 焼き串 (yakigushi)
    2. any slender object that can pierce other objects, especially:
      1. (Shinto) Short for 玉串 (tamagushi): a branch of a (sakaki) tree used as a Shinto offering
        • c. 11201140, Konjaku Monogatarishū (book 24, story 51)
           () () (へい) (くし) (かき) (つけ) (たてまつ)りたりける
          sono gohei no kushi ni kakitsukete tatematsuritarikeru
          That branch of streamers, written and presented...
      2. Short for 幕串 (makugushi): a post used to hang a curtain
    3. a candle's wick
      Synonym: (shin)
    4. (slang, computing) a proxy server
       (ちゅう) (ごく) (くし)
      Chūgoku kushi
      a Chinese proxy
      Synonyms: プロクシ (purokushi), プロクシサーバー (purokushi sābā), 串鯖 (kushisaba)

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

     (くし) (Kushi)

    1. a surname

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠuanH).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 익힐 (ikhil gwan))

    1. Hanja form? of (to become habituated to something).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Late Middle Chinese (*tʂʰyanH).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 꿰미 (kkwemi cheon))

    1. Hanja form? of (string; chain; skewer).
    2. Hanja form? of (to string; to thread; to skewer).
    3. Hanja form? of (receipt).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Misreading of Middle Chinese (MC t͡ʃʰˠɛnX).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 꼬챙이 (kkochaeng-i chan))

    1. Hanja form? of (skewer).
      Synonym: ( (chan))

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Related to Middle Korean 곶다 (Yale: kwocta).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 이름 (ttang ireum got))

    1. Hanja form? of (used as a suffix in placenames).
    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *kusi.

    Cognate with (kusi, comb).[1]

    Noun[edit]

    (kusi) (kana くし)

    1. any slender object that can pierce other objects

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (kushi)

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: quán ((cổ)(hoạn)(thiết))[2][1][3]
    : Nôm readings: xiên[2], xuyên[2], xuyến[2], quán[1]

    1. Hán tự form of quán (to string an object).

    References[edit]