主義

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See also: 主义

Chinese[edit]

 
to own; to host; master; lord; primary
justice; righteousness; meaning
trad. (主義)
simp. (主义)

Etymology[edit]

Attestable in ancient Chinese texts. In the sense of "doctrine; ideology; -ism", wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese  (しゅ) () (shugi).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (23) (31)
Final () (24) (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () III Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨoX/ /ŋˠiᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕioX/ /ŋᵚiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕioX/ /ŋiɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cuə̆X/ /ŋjiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕioX/ /ŋjeH/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭuX/ /ŋǐeH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯uX/ /ŋie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǔ
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyuX › ‹ ngjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*toʔ/ /*ŋ(r)aj-s/
English master; host duty; justice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 17618 13045
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjoʔ/ /*ŋrals/

Noun[edit]

主義

  1. doctrine; ideology; -ism
  2. (literary) position; stance

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (主義):

Verb[edit]

主義

  1. (literary) to uphold righteousness

See also[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
しゅ
Grade: 3

Grade: 5
on’yomi
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

+ [1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

主義 (hiragana しゅぎ, rōmaji shugi)

  1. a principle or set of principles; a doctrine; an ism
    あの (ひと) (しゅ) () (もと)づいて (けい) (やく) (きょ) (ぜつ)するはずです。
    Ano hito wa shugi ni motozuite keiyaku o kyozetsu suru hazu desu.
    I expect they will reject the contract on principle.

Suffix[edit]

主義 (hiragana しゅぎ, rōmaji -shugi)

  1. -ism

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 王彬彬, 有事生非, 2015 :
    禾认为是日本人从古汉语中借了“主义”一词,去译英语的后缀“ism”,然后“主义”便作为“ism”的译语返回中国。实际上,古汉语中根本没有“主义”这个词。是日本人把“主”和“义”这两个汉字组成一个词,去译“ism”。所以,“主义”不是什么“回归的书写形式外来词”。
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

主義 (juui) (hangeul 주의)

  1. Hanja form? of 주의 (-ism).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

主義

  1. Hán tự form of chủ nghĩa, (“-ism; doctrine”).