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U+4F13, 伓
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F13

[U+4F12]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F14]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人一火 (OMF), four-corner 21290, composition)

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“mighty”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“no, not”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“back; behind; betray”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 4[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms Min Nan
Teochew

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min) not
    / [Min Dong]  ―  n̂g-gōng / [(ŋ̍-)ŋ̍²⁴²⁻⁵³ (k-)ŋouŋ³³] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]  ―  not speak; not say; needless to say
    [Min Dong]  ―  n̂g-siàng / [(ŋ̍-)n̩²⁴²⁻⁵⁵ (s-)niaŋ⁵³] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]  ―  inappropriate; unwilling
    [Min Dong]  ―  n̂g-báik / [(ŋ̍-)m̩²⁴²⁻⁵³ (p-)maiʔ²⁴] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]  ―  not know
    [Min Dong]  ―  Kó̤-n̂g-kó̤ / [kʰo²¹³⁻²¹ (ŋ̍-)ŋ̍²⁴²⁻⁵³ (kʰ-)ŋɔ²¹³] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]  ―  Do you want to go?
Usage notes[edit]
  • In Min Dong, this particle changes its pronunciation depending on the initial of the following syllable: n̂g (velar and null initials); m̂ (labial initials); n̂ (dental initials). Orthographically, all the complementary pronunciations are written as ‹n̂g› (or ‹ng› in Maclay (1929)).
    • In addition to this, all three forms have an emphatic form: îng.
  • This particle is not used alone; its tone is inferred from tone sandhi patterns.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“not”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese , , , , ,
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Harbin
Shenyang
Jinan
Muping
Luoyang
Wanrong
Xi'an
Xining
Xuzhou
Yinchuan
Lanzhou
Ürümqi
Wuhan
Chengdu
Guiyang
Liuzhou
Kunming
Yangzhou
Nanjing
Hefei
Nantong
Malaysia
Singapore
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Dongguan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Lichuan
Pingxiang
Hakka Meixian
Xingning
Huidong (Daling)
Qujiang
Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
Changting
Pingyu
Wuping
Liancheng
Ninghua ,
Yudu
Ruijin
Shicheng
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan
Xinzhou
Min Bei Jian'ou , 𣍐
Min Dong Fuzhou , 𣍐
Matsu , 𣍐
Min Nan Xiamen , ,
Quanzhou , ,
Zhangzhou , ,
Taipei , ,
Kaohsiung , ,
Penang , ,
Chaozhou ,
Shantou ,
Haikou
Leizhou
Pinghua Nanning
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Hangzhou
Wenzhou
Chongming ,
Danyang
Jinhua
Ningbo
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Loudi

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

  • On (unclassified): はい (hai); (he); (hi)