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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人一火 (OMF), four-corner 21290, composition)

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see ("mighty").
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see ("no, not").
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see ("back; behind; betray").
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min Dong) Negation particle.
    / [Min Dong]  ―  n̂g-gōng / [(ŋ̍-)ŋ̍²⁴²⁻⁵³ (k-)ŋouŋ³³] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]  ―  not speak; not say; needless to say
    [Min Dong]  ―  n̂g-siàng / [(ŋ̍-)n̩²⁴²⁻⁵⁵ (s-)niaŋ⁵³] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]  ―  inappropriate; unwilling
    [Min Dong]  ―  n̂g-báik / [(ŋ̍-)m̩²⁴²⁻⁵³ (p-)maiʔ²⁴] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]  ―  not know
    [Min Dong, trad. and simp.]
    Kó̤-n̂g-kó̤ / [kʰo²¹³⁻²¹ (ŋ̍-)ŋ̍²⁴²⁻⁵³ (kʰ-)ŋɔ²¹³] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]
    Do you want to go?
Usage notes[edit]

This particle changes its pronunciation depending on the initial of the following syllable: n̂g (velar and null initials); m̂ (labial initials); n̂ (dental initials). Orthographically, all the complementary pronunciations are written as ‹n̂g› (or ‹ng› in Maclay (1929)).

In addition to this, all three forms have an emphatic form: îng.

This particle is not used alone; its tone is inferred from tone sandhi patterns.

Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of ("not")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou 𣍐
Min Dong Fuzhou 𣍐
Min Nan Quanzhou
Xiamen
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Shanghai
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]