Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
U+4F8D, 侍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F8D

[U+4F8C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F8E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人土木戈 (OGDI), four-corner 24241, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 101, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 589
  • Dae Jaweon: page 215, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 143, character 17
  • Unihan data for U+4F8D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tɯːʔ, *tɯːŋʔ
*dɯːʔ
*ljɯs
*l'ɯ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *tjɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *tjɯʔ, *djɯʔ
*dɯʔ, *djɯs
*dɯʔ
*djɯ
*djɯ
*djɯ
*djɯ, *djɯs
*djɯ
*djɯʔ
*djɯs
*hljɯ
*hljɯ
*dɯːɡ

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sī/sīr - literary;
  • sāi - vernacular;
  • sū - vernacular (俗).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑɨH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑieH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiəH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭəH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shì
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shì
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyiH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[d]əʔ-s/
    English accompany, wait upon

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12049
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djɯs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to wait upon; to serve
    2. attendant, servant
    3. A surname​: Shi

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    • Contemporary Chinese Dictionary (Xiandai Hanyu Cidian), Beijing: Commercial Press, 1994

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. samurai
    2. wait upon, serve
    Readings[edit]
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    さむらい
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨sa morapi1/saburapi//saburafi//samurawi//samurai/

    Sound shift from saburai (see below), itself the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of classical verb 侍ふ (saburafu, to serve, modern saburau), ultimately derived from (sa-, prefix meaning "early") + 守らふ (morafu, to keep watch, modern morau).

    The shift from saburaf-samuraf- is due to the development of the 女性語 (josei-go, women's language) in Middle Japanese, expected from (sōrō, service, classical saurafu).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana さむらい, rōmaji samurai, historical hiragana さむらひ)

    1. (historical) a warrior class in medieval and pre-modern Japan; samurai
      Synonyms: 武士 (bushi)
    2. one who serves nearby:
      1. a servant
      2. a retainer
    3. Short for 侍所 (samurai-dokoro): the Board of Retainers in the Kamakura and Muromachi periods.
    4. an above-average person
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さぶらい
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨sa morapi1/saburapi//saburafi//saburawi//saburai/

    The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of classical verb 侍ふ (saburafu, to serve).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana さぶらい, rōmaji saburai, historical hiragana さぶらひ)

    1. (archaic) one who serves nearby:
      1. a servant
      2. a retainer
      3. a warrior; particularly, a samurai
        • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 545)[3]
          Saburai. サブライ() 貴族, または,尊敬すべき人〔武士〕.
    2. Synonym of 下侍 (shimosaburai): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    3. Short for 侍所 (saburai-dokoro): a samurai guardhouse in the Heian period

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (si) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thị)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]