Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+4F9D, 依
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F9D

[U+4F9C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F9E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 9, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人卜竹女 (OYHV), four-corner 20232, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 102, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 607
  • Dae Jaweon: page 217, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 152, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4F9D

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
依-oracle.svg 依-bronze.svg 依-silk.svg 依-slip.svg 依-seal.svg 依-bigseal.svg 依-clerical.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qɯl): semantic (human) + phonetic (OC *qɯl, *qɯls).

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

Probably cognate with (OC *qralʔ, *qrals) (Wang, 1982). Perhaps (OC *qin) is an allofam (Pulleyblank, 1991), though the vowels do not agree (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (20)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔɨi/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔɨi/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔiəi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɨj/
Li
Rong
/ʔiəi/
Wang
Li
/ĭəi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔe̯i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ji1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔjɨj ›
Old
Chinese
/*ʔəj/
English lean upon

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14836
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qɯl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to lean on
  2. to rely on; to depend on
  3. to obey; to comply with; to agree to
  4. according to; in accordance with; in light of; in a manner conforming to; in compliance with
  5. Used in 依稀 (yīxī).
  6. a surname: Yi
Synonyms[edit]
  • (to rely on):
edit
  • (according to):
edit

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠵱

Dialectal variant of (ni1).

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Cantonese) this; these
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “related to 阿?”)

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min Dong) Used in front of persons' given names or kinship terms to express familiarity.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔɨi).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

() (i

  1. rely on; depend on
  2. according to
  3. as before
    ()(ぜん)izensame as before, still
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔɨi).

The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

() (e

  1. rely on; depend on

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (ui))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: y, e, , ỉa

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]