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See also:
U+5102, 儂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5102

[U+5101]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5103]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 9, +13, 15 strokes, cangjie input 人廿田女 (OTWV), four-corner 25232, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 118, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1176
  • Dae Jaweon: page 251, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 225, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5102

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms Min
𠆧 Min Dong
Wu

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *nuːŋ): semantic + phonetic (OC *nuːŋ).

Etymology 1[edit]

“Person; I; me > suffix for pronouns” in southeastern varieties

Its senses of “person; human being” and “pronoun suffix” are well-attested in the classical literature, dating back to the Six Dynasties. At the present time, traces of this word are found in various Southern regions such as Fujian, Jiangxi and Zhejiang, in Wu, Min, Hui and Gan.

“Person; human”
In Coastal Min (Eastern, Southern and Puxian Min), it serves as the vernacular reading of (OC *njin, “person”), by itself or in compounds. It is also used in Jinqu Wu lects (also classified as Wuzhou Wu and Chuqu Wu), usually written as .
“I”
was used to mean “I” in medieval poetry from the Wu region, before it was displaced by the more common (MC ŋɑX, “I”). Also attested was Ancient Wu 阿儂 (MC ʔɑ nuoŋ, “I”), which was abbreviated to (“I”) in certain localities, such as that of Jinhua.
Pronoun suffix
This is widely found in Wu and Min languages. The structure ‹ singular pronoun (“I, you, he/she/it”) +  › is common, with functioning either as a meaningless particle or a pluraliser. The resulting forms were thus used to mean singular or plural pronouns, and were rather prone to elision to become a single syllable. Compare the following plural pronouns in Min:
Original word Meaning Fuding
(Eastern Min)
Longyan
(Southern Min)
Xiamen
(Southern Min)
Xianyou
(Puxian Min)
我儂 we ua neiŋ gua laŋ gun () kuoŋ ~ kŋ ()
儂儂 we (inclusive) - laŋ laŋ lan () -
汝儂 you (plural) ni neiŋ li laŋ lin () tyøŋ ()
伊儂 they i neiŋ i laŋ in (𪜶) yøŋ (𪜶)
A similar chain of changes happened in the Wu varieties to arrive at the modern divergent dialectal forms for “you (singular)”.
爾儂 (MC ȵiᴇX nuoŋ)
Lect Term
Northern Fenghua /n̩˧˨˦ noŋ/ 爾儂尔侬
Yuyao /noŋ˩˩˧/
Shanghai /noŋ˩˩˧/
Ningbo /nəu˨˩˧/
Changshu /nɛ̃˧˩/
Suzhou /ne̞˧˩/
Shengze /nə˧˩/
Jinqu Tangxi /ŋ˨˩˩ noŋ˩˨/ 爾儂尔侬
Lanxi /ŋ˥˦˦ noŋ˦˧˧/ 爾儂尔侬
Some lects, such as Shanghainese, have merged the two syllables into one, leaving to mean “you (singular)”.

With regard to the etymology of this word, Huang (1980), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same as (OC *nuːŋ, “farmer; peasant”). The use of this word as a pronoun may have originated as a form of personal deprecation and then come to be used as a full-fledged pronoun. Pan and Chen (1995) disagree, proposing that nong was originally a Baiyue substrate word possibly of Kra-Dai origin, and possibly an original clan name later developing to mean “person; I”. Compare Zhuang Nungz (a surname) and name of the 11th century Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao, as well as the name of the Nùng people in Vietnam.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nè̤ng - vernacular;
  • nùng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lâng - vernacular;
    • lông - literary.
    Note:
    • nang5 - vernacular;
    • long5 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /noŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nóng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    nung4
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9576
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (coastal Min, dialectal Wu) person; human being (Classifier: md;  mn)
    2. (coastal Min) a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    3. (coastal Min) physical, psychological or moral quality or condition
    4. (coastal Min) others; other people
    5. (Wu, coastal Min) I; me
    6. (archaic or Wu) you (singular)
      名字 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      名字 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [nʊŋ³³  t͡ɕʰiɔ⁴⁴  sa̱⁴⁴  mɪɲ²² z̥z̩³³  a̱] [IPA]
      What is your name?
      哪能現在上海閒話 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      哪能现在上海闲话 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [na̱²² nəɲ³³  nʊŋ³³  ɦi²² z̥e̞³³  z̥ɑ̃²² he̞³³  ɦe̞²² ɦo³³  kɑ̃⁴⁴  ləʔ²²  ka̱⁴⁴  hɔ³⁴] [IPA]
      How come you speak Shanghainese so well?
    7. (dialectal Wu) he, him; she, her; it
    8. (Min, Wu) Suffix for pronouns, functioning as a meaningless particle or a pluralising particle.
    9. a surname. Nong
    Usage notes[edit]
    • (I):
      • Archaic in Wu.
      • In coastal Min (Min Dong nè̤ng; Hokkien lāng, lǎng, lâng; Hainanese nang2), it is often used affectionately like Mandarin 人家 (rénjia).
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp.

    Probably a Kra-Dai substrate word. Compare Proto-Tai *nwoːŋꟲ (younger sibling) (whence Zhuang nuengx (younger sibling)), Southern Kam nongx (younger sibling).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (dialectal Cantonese) child
    2. (dialectal Cantonese) son
    3. (Leizhou Min) infant
    4. (Hainanese, polite, humble) Used as a first-person singular pronoun, especially used by someone in the younger generation.
    5. (Hainanese, endearing) A pronoun used by someone in the older generation to refer to someone in the younger generation.
    Synonyms[edit]