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See also:
U+5102, 儂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5102

[U+5101]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5103]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +13, 15 strokes, cangjie input 人廿田女 (OTWV), four-corner 25232, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 118, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1176
  • Dae Jaweon: page 251, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 225, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5102

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuː
*rnuːŋ, *nuːŋ
*rnuːŋ, *noŋ
*rnuːŋʔ
*noːŋs
*noːŋs
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *nuːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *nuːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

“Person; I; me > suffix for pronouns” in southeastern dialects.

Its senses of “person; human being” and “pronoun suffix” are well-attested in the classical literature, dating back to the Six Dynasties. At the present time, traces of this word are found in regions of Jiangsu (Northern Wu), Anhui (Hui), Shanghai (Northern Wu), Zhejiang (Southern Wu), Jiangxi (Gan), Fujian (Min), Guangdong (Southern Min, Cantonese), Guangxi (Cantonese) and Hainan (Min).

“Person; human”
In coastal Min (Min Dong, Min Nan and Puxian Min), it serves as the vernacular reading of (OC *njin, “person”), by itself or in compounds. It is also used in Jinqu Wu dialects (formerly classified as Wuzhou Wu and Chuqu Wu), usually written as .
“I”
was used to mean “I” in medieval poetry from the Wu region, before it was displaced by the common Chinese (MC ŋɑX, “I”). Also attested was ancient Wu 阿儂 (MC ʔɑ nuoŋ, “I”), which was abbreviated to (“I”) in certain dialects, such as Jinhua.
Pronoun suffix
This is widely found in Wu and Min dialects. The structure ‹ singular pronoun (“I, you, he/she/it”) +  › is common, with functioning either as a meaningless particle or a pluraliser. The resulting forms were thus used to mean singular or plural pronouns, and were rather prone to elision to become a single syllable. Compare the following plural pronouns in Min:
Original word Meaning Fuding
(Eastern Min)
Longyan
(Southern Min)
Xiamen
(Southern Min)
Xianyou
(Puxian Min)
我儂 we ua neiŋ gua laŋ gun () kuoŋ ~ kŋ ()
儂儂 we (inclusive) - laŋ laŋ lan () -
汝儂 you (plural) ni neiŋ li laŋ lin () tyøŋ ()
伊儂 they i neiŋ i laŋ in (𪜶) yøŋ (𪜶)
A similar chain of changes happened in the Wu dialects to arrive at the modern divergent dialectal forms for “you (singular)”. In Shanghai and some other Wu dialects, the first syllable had become elided, leaving to mean “you (singular)”.
爾儂 (MC ȵiᴇX nuoŋ)
Fenghua (Zhejiang) /n̩˧˨˦.noŋˑ/
Yuyao (Zhejiang) /noŋ˩˩˧/
Shanghai (Shanghai) /nʊŋ˨˧/ ()
Ningbo (Zhejiang) /nəu˨˩˧/
Changshu (Jiangsu) /nɛ̃˧˩/
Suzhou (Jiangsu) /ne̞˧˩/
Shengze (Jiangsu) /nə˧˩/

With regard to the etymology of this word, Huang (2000), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same as (OC *nuːŋ, “farmer; peasant”). The use of this word as a pronoun may have originated as a form of personal deprecation and then come to be used as a full-fledged pronoun. Pan and Chen (1995) considered this theory implausible, and proposed that this was originally a Baiyue substrate word, possibly of Tai-Kadai origin. The initial meaning of nong was possibly a clan name, later developing to mean “person; I”. Compare Zhuang Nungz (a surname) and name of the 11th century Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao, as well as the name of the Nùng people in Vietnam.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lâng - vernacular;
  • lông - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /noŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nóng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9576
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (coastal Min, dialectal Wu) person; human being
    2. (Leizhou Min) infant
    3. Suffix for pronouns, functioning as a meaningless particle or a pluralising particle.
    4. Used as a variety of pronouns in different dialects: I; you (singular); he, she, it; we; you (plural); they
    5. A surname​. Nong

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“man; person”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Qingdao
    Zhengzhou
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Guilin
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Shunde
    Foshan
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Taishan
    Doumen
    Kaiping
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Luchuan
    Changting
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Shexian
    Tunxi
    Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Guilin
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Tangxi
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan
    Loudi
    Quanzhou
    Dialectal synonyms of 嬰兒 (“baby; infant”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 嬰兒嬰孩
    Mandarin Taiwan 嬰兒寶寶
    Luoyang 娃娃
    Jiedian 胎娃
    Xuzhou 小毛娃兒
    Wuhan 毛頭伢毛頭毛毛伢毛毛伢伢
    Guiyang 嫩娃娃
    Nanjing 小毛娃毛娃小寶寶
    Cantonese Guangzhou 蘇蝦仔阿蝦臊妹
    Hong Kong 蘇蝦仔蘇蝦啤啤啤啤仔
    Dongguan 蘇蝦仔啤啤啤啤仔
    Gan Nanchang 毛伢子
    Lichuan 毛伢崽
    Pingxiang 毛毛仔
    Hakka Meixian 孲𤘅仔
    Xingning 孲𤘅哩
    Huidong 孲𤘅仔
    Qujiang 孲𤘅子
    Xiaosanjiang 嫩仔
    Changting 孲𤘅子赤蝦子
    Pingyu 蝦毛子
    Wuping 孲𤘅子赤蝦子
    Liancheng 孲𤘅子
    Yudu 伢人子毛伢子
    Ruijin 孲𤘅子赤蝦子
    Shicheng 赤伢
    Shangyou 伢毛子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 孲𤘅仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 孲𤘅仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 孲𤘅孲𤘅仔
    Dongshi (Dabu) 孲𤘅
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 孲𤘅仔孲𤘅
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿佅嬰仔
    Huizhou Jixi 細妹
    Jin Taiyuan 小娃娃
    Xinzhou 小娃子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 𤘅仔
    Min Dong Fuzhou 兒囝囝
    Min Nan Xiamen 嬰仔
    Quanzhou 嬰仔
    Zhangzhou 嬰仔嬰哥紅嬰仔紅嬰
    Taipei 嬰仔
    Kaohsiung 紅嬰仔
    Tainan 紅嬰仔
    Taichung 紅嬰仔
    Hsinchu 紅嬰仔
    Lukang 紅嬰仔
    Sanxia 紅嬰
    Yilan 紅嬰仔
    Kinmen 嬰仔
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning 娃娃
    Wu Shanghai 小毛頭小小囡毛毛頭
    Suzhou 小毛頭毛毛頭血泡泡
    Hangzhou 小毛頭兒小毛頭毛頭兒毛毛頭
    Wenzhou 娒兒娒娒兒
    Chongming 小小囡
    Danyang 小毛毛毛毛
    Jinhua 王男
    Ningbo 奶花小毛頭毛頭奶花孲𤘅抱手
    Xiang Changsha 毛毛毛毛它毛它
    Loudi 毛毛唧毛毛
    Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing honorific
    Taiwan honorific
    Harbin honorific
    Shenyang
    Hailar
    Ulan Hot
    Tongliao
    Chifeng honorific
    Bayanhot honorific
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Zhengzhou
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan 你家 honorific
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Shunde
    Foshan
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Taishan
    Doumen
    Kaiping
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Xingning
    Huidong
    Qujiang
    Xiaosanjiang
    Changting
    Pingyu
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Shexian
    Tunxi 爾仂
    Jixi 爾仂
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou 你吶 honorific
    Baochang honorific
    Jining honorific
    Hohhot honorific
    Baotou honorific
    Dongsheng honorific
    Linhe honorific
    Haibowan honorific
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wuxi
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Tangxi 爾儂
    Ningbo 爾儂
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan
    Loudi

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    This character is seldom used in modern Japanese.

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Contraction of (watashi, I, me).[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (more common)

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana わし, rōmaji washi)

    1. I, me (used by the elderly)
    Usage notes[edit]

    The term is generally only used by the elderly, and its use is often considered stereotypical of them. As such, it is frequently used in TV shows and comics to emphasize the age of characters.

    More commonly spelled , or in kana to make the reading explicit.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かれ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Compound of (ka, that, yon) +‎ (re, nominalizing suffix for demonstratives). Found in the Man'yōshū compiled around 759.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (more common)

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana かれ, rōmaji kare)

    1. (rare) third person pronoun: he, she
      1. particularly, male personal third person pronoun: he
      2. by extension from he: boyfriend
    Usage notes[edit]

    Very rare spelling. See the more common spelling for more details about the term.

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (nong) (hangeul , revised nong, McCune–Reischauer nong)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nông, nùng, noọng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.