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U+5102, 儂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5102

[U+5101]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5103]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +13, 15 strokes, cangjie input 人廿田女 (OTWV), four-corner 25232, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 118, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1176
  • Dae Jaweon: page 251, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 225, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5102

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuː
*rnuːŋ, *nuːŋ
*rnuːŋ, *noŋ
*rnuːŋʔ
*noːŋs
*noːŋs
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *nuːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *nuːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

“Person; I; me > suffix for pronouns” in southeastern dialects.

Its senses of “person; human being” and “pronoun suffix” are well-attested in the classical literature, dating back to the Six Dynasties. At the present time, traces of this word are found in regions of Jiangsu (Northern Wu), Anhui (Hui), Shanghai (Northern Wu), Zhejiang (Southern Wu), Jiangxi (Gan), Fujian (Min), Guangdong (Southern Min, Cantonese), Guangxi (Cantonese) and Hainan (Min).

“Person; human”
In Eastern (Min Dong) and Southern Min (Min Nan), it serves as the vernacular readings of (OC *njin, “person”), by itself or in compounds.
“I”
was used to mean “I” in medieval poetry from the Wu region, before it was displaced by the common Chinese (MC ŋɑX, “I”). Also attested was ancient Wu 阿儂 (MC ʔɑ nuoŋ, “I”), which was abbreviated to (“I”) in certain dialects, such as Jinhua.
Pronoun suffix
This is widely found in Wu and Min dialects. The structure ‹ singular pronoun (“I, you, he/she/it”) + › is common, with functioning either as a meaningless particle or a pluraliser. The resulting forms were thus used to mean singular or plural pronouns, and were rather prone to elision to become a single syllable. Compare the following plural pronouns in Min:
Original word Meaning Fuding
(Eastern Min)
Longyan
(Southern Min)
Xiamen
(Southern Min)
我儂 we ue neŋ gua laŋ gun ()
汝儂 you (plural) ni neŋ li laŋ lin ()
伊儂 they i neŋ i laŋ in (𪜶)
A similar chain of changes happened in the Wu dialects to arrive at the modern divergent dialectal forms for “you (singular)”. In Shanghai and some other Wu dialects, the first syllable had become elided, leaving to mean “you (singular)”.
爾儂 (MC ȵiᴇX nuoŋ)
Fenghua (Zhejiang) /n̩˧˨˦.noŋˑ/
Yuyao (Zhejiang) /noŋ˩˩˧/
Shanghai (Shanghai) /nʊŋ˨˧/ ()
Ningbo (Zhejiang) /nəu˨˩˧/
Changshu (Jiangsu) /nɛ̃˧˩/
Suzhou (Jiangsu) /ne̞˧˩/
Shengze (Jiangsu) /nə˧˩/

With regard to the etymology of this word, Huang (2000), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same as (OC *nuːŋ, “farmer; peasant”). The use of this word as a pronoun may have originated as a form of personal deprecation and then come to be used as a full-fledged pronoun. Pan and Chen (1995) considered this theory implausible, and proposed that this was originally a Baiyue substrate word, possibly of Tai-Kadai origin. The initial meaning of nong was possibly a clan name, later developing to mean “person; I”. Compare Zhuang Nungz (a surname) and name of the 11th century Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao, as well as the name of the Nùng people in Vietnam.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lâng - vernacular;
  • lông - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (5)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nuoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/nuoŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/noŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nawŋ/
Li
Rong
/noŋ/
Wang
Li
/nuoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nuoŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nóng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9576
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nuːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. person; human being
  2. Suffix for pronouns, functioning as a meaningless particle or a pluralising particle.
  3. Used as a variety of pronouns in different dialects: I; you (singular); he, she, it; we; you (plural); they
  4. A surname​. Nong

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 你家
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Yilan
Lukang
Sanxia
Kinmen
Magong
Hsinchu
Penang
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Ningbo 爾儂像儂像爾
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
わし
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

This character is seldom used in modern Japanese.

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
わし
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

Contraction of (watashi, I, me).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (more common)

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana わし, rōmaji washi)

  1. I, me (used by the elderly)
Usage notes[edit]

The term is generally only used by the elderly, and its use is often considered stereotypical of them. As such, it is frequently used in TV shows and comics to emphasize the age of characters.

More commonly spelled , or in kana to make the reading explicit.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かれ
Hyōgaiji
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Compound of (ka, that, yon) +‎ (re, nominalizing suffix for demonstratives). Found in the Man'yōshū compiled around 759.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (more common)

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana かれ, rōmaji kare)

  1. (rare) third person pronoun: he, she
    1. particularly, male personal third person pronoun: he
    2. by extension from he: boyfriend
Usage notes[edit]

Very rare spelling. See the more common spelling for more details about the term.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nong) (hangeul , revised nong, McCune-Reischauer nong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nông, nùng, noọng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.