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See also:
U+5102, 儂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5102

[U+5101]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5103]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +13, 15 strokes, cangjie input 人廿田女 (OTWV), four-corner 25232, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 118, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1176
  • Dae Jaweon: page 251, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 225, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5102

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuː
*rnuːŋ, *nuːŋ
*rnuːŋ, *noŋ
*rnuːŋʔ
*noːŋs
*noːŋs
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *nuːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *nuːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

“Person; I; me > suffix for pronouns” in southeastern dialects.

Its senses of “person; human being” and “pronoun suffix” are well-attested in the classical literature, dating back to the Six Dynasties. At the present time, traces of this word are found in regions of Jiangsu (Northern Wu), Anhui (Hui), Shanghai (Northern Wu), Zhejiang (Southern Wu), Jiangxi (Gan), Fujian (Min), Guangdong (Southern Min, Cantonese), Guangxi (Cantonese) and Hainan (Min).

“Person; human”
In coastal Min (Min Dong, Min Nan and Puxian Min), it serves as the vernacular reading of (OC *njin, “person”), by itself or in compounds. It is also used in Jinqu Wu dialects (formerly classified as Wuzhou Wu and Chuqu Wu), usually written as .
“I”
was used to mean “I” in medieval poetry from the Wu region, before it was displaced by the common Chinese (MC ŋɑX, “I”). Also attested was ancient Wu 阿儂 (MC ʔɑ nuoŋ, “I”), which was abbreviated to (“I”) in certain dialects, such as Jinhua.
Pronoun suffix
This is widely found in Wu and Min dialects. The structure ‹ singular pronoun (“I, you, he/she/it”) + › is common, with functioning either as a meaningless particle or a pluraliser. The resulting forms were thus used to mean singular or plural pronouns, and were rather prone to elision to become a single syllable. Compare the following plural pronouns in Min:
Original word Meaning Fuding
(Eastern Min)
Longyan
(Southern Min)
Xiamen
(Southern Min)
Xianyou
(Puxian Min)
我儂 we ua neiŋ gua laŋ gun () kuoŋ ~ kŋ ()
儂儂 we (inclusive) - laŋ laŋ lan () -
汝儂 you (plural) ni neiŋ li laŋ lin () tyøŋ ()
伊儂 they i neiŋ i laŋ in (𪜶) yøŋ (𪜶)
A similar chain of changes happened in the Wu dialects to arrive at the modern divergent dialectal forms for “you (singular)”. In Shanghai and some other Wu dialects, the first syllable had become elided, leaving to mean “you (singular)”.
爾儂 (MC ȵiᴇX nuoŋ)
Fenghua (Zhejiang) /n̩˧˨˦.noŋˑ/
Yuyao (Zhejiang) /noŋ˩˩˧/
Shanghai (Shanghai) /nʊŋ˨˧/ ()
Ningbo (Zhejiang) /nəu˨˩˧/
Changshu (Jiangsu) /nɛ̃˧˩/
Suzhou (Jiangsu) /ne̞˧˩/
Shengze (Jiangsu) /nə˧˩/

With regard to the etymology of this word, Huang (2000), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same as (OC *nuːŋ, “farmer; peasant”). The use of this word as a pronoun may have originated as a form of personal deprecation and then come to be used as a full-fledged pronoun. Pan and Chen (1995) considered this theory implausible, and proposed that this was originally a Baiyue substrate word, possibly of Tai-Kadai origin. The initial meaning of nong was possibly a clan name, later developing to mean “person; I”. Compare Zhuang Nungz (a surname) and name of the 11th century Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao, as well as the name of the Nùng people in Vietnam.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lâng - vernacular;
  • lông - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /noŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nóng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9576
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (coastal Min, dialectal Wu) person; human being
    2. Suffix for pronouns, functioning as a meaningless particle or a pluralising particle.
    3. Used as a variety of pronouns in different dialects: I; you (singular); he, she, it; we; you (plural); they
    4. A surname​. Nong

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“man; person”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Qingdao
    Zhengzhou
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Guilin
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Shunde
    Foshan
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Taishan
    Doumen
    Kaiping
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Luchuan
    Changting
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Shexian
    Tunxi
    Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Guilin
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Tangxi
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan
    Loudi
    Quanzhou
    Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan 你家
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Ningbo 爾儂像儂像爾
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    This character is seldom used in modern Japanese.

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Contraction of (watashi, I, me).[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (more common)

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana わし, rōmaji washi)

    1. I, me (used by the elderly)
    Usage notes[edit]

    The term is generally only used by the elderly, and its use is often considered stereotypical of them. As such, it is frequently used in TV shows and comics to emphasize the age of characters.

    More commonly spelled , or in kana to make the reading explicit.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かれ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Compound of (ka, that, yon) +‎ (re, nominalizing suffix for demonstratives). Found in the Man'yōshū compiled around 759.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (more common)

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana かれ, rōmaji kare)

    1. (rare) third person pronoun: he, she
      1. particularly, male personal third person pronoun: he
      2. by extension from he: boyfriend
    Usage notes[edit]

    Very rare spelling. See the more common spelling for more details about the term.

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (nong) (hangeul , revised nong, McCune–Reischauer nong)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nông, nùng, noọng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.