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U+5109, 儉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5109

[U+5108]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+510A]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +13, 15 strokes, cangjie input 人人一人 (OOMO), four-corner 28286, composition)

  1. temperate, frugal, economical

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 119, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1190
  • Dae Jaweon: page 252, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 226, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5109

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
儉-bigseal.svg 儉-seal.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raːm, *kʰreːm, *kʰlam
*qʰlaːm
*ɡ·reːmʔ, *skʰlam, *kramʔ
*ɡr·reːmʔ, *skʰraːmʔ
*kreːmʔ, *skʰlam
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *qʰram
*ɡ·ram
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams, *qʰramʔ
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *qʰlam
*ɡ·ram
*ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·ramʔ, *kramʔ
*ɡ·ramʔ
*ɡ·rams
*skʰlam
*skʰlam
*skʰlam, *skʰlamʔ, *sqʰlam, *qʰramʔ
*skʰlam, *qʰramʔ
*kramʔ
*kramʔ
*ɡramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *rlɯmʔ, *kʰrɯmʔ
*ŋramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *hŋramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *ŋrams
*ŋrams
*qʰramʔ
*kams
*kams
𩏩 *qʰam

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (154)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡˠiᴇmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡᵚiɛmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiæmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/gjiamX/
Li
Rong
/ɡjɛmX/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭɛmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ɛmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjemX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]r[a]mʔ/
English restrict, frugal

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10213
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡramʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(geom) (hangeul , revised geom, McCune-Reischauer kŏm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kiệm, cợm, hiếm, thiếu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.