先生

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Chinese[edit]

 
early; prior; former; in advance; first
 
to be born; to give birth; life; to grow; student; raw
simp. and trad.
(先生)
Literally: “one who was born earlier”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: When following a surname, it is read in the neutral tone.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/2
Initial () (16) (21)
Final () (85) (109)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () IV II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sen/ /ʃˠæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/sen/ /ʃᵚaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɛn/ /ʃaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɛn/ /ʂaɨjŋ/
Li
Rong
/sen/ /ʃɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/sien/ /ʃɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sien/ /ʂɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiān shēng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiān shēng shēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sen › ‹ sræng › ‹ srjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*sˁər/ /*sreŋ/ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?) /*sreŋ/ (or *s.reŋ ?)
English first bear, be born; live bear, be born; live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/2
No. 13458 11312
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sɯːn/ /*sʰleːŋ/

Noun[edit]

先生

  1. An honorific for adults, usually conferred on males: mister; sir; gentleman
    先生 / 先生 [Taiwanese Mandarin]  ―  Wáng xiānshēng lái le. [Pinyin]  ―  Mr. Wang has come.
    先生 / 先生 [Min Nan]  ―  Ông--sian-seⁿ lâi--ah. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Mr. Ong has come.
  2. husband
  3. (literally, Classical Chinese) one who was born earlier
  4. (literary) father and elder brother
  5. (literary) ancestor
  6. (literary) Taoist priest
  7. (Gan, Hakka, Min, dated in Mandarin and Jin) doctor
  8. (Cantonese, Gan, Hakka, Min, dated in Mandarin, honorific in Jin) teacher
    先生學生恬恬 [Min Nan, trad.]
    先生学生恬恬 [Min Nan, simp.]
    Sian-siⁿ kóng, ha̍k-seng tiām-tiām thiaⁿ. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    The teacher speaks, and the students silently listen.
  9. (obsolete or Wu) female prostitute

Synonyms[edit]

  • (female prostitute):
edit

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (先生):
  • Japanese: 先生(せんせい) (sensei) (see there for further descendants)
  • Korean: 선생 (先生, seonsaeng)
  • Vietnamese: tiên sinh (先生)

Others:

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
せん
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: 1
kan’on

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese 先生 (MC sen|senH ʃˠæŋ|ʃˠæŋH, literally “born earlier”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

先生(せんせい) or 先生(センセー) (sensei or sensē

  1. an elder
  2. a scholar
  3. a teacher or a professor
    • 1984 February 20 [Jun 15 1983], Murakami, Motoka, “()(かん)()()(まき) [A Season Full of Emotions]”, in ()()()(けん) [Musashi’s Sword], volume 10 (fiction), 4th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, pages 161–162:
      (がっ)(こう)のみんなも(せん)(せい)のことさ()いてる……()っちゃすきか⁉
      Gakkō no minna mo Sensei no koto sa suiteru…… Katcha suki ka⁉
      Everybody at school likes Sensei…… Ya like him, Ma⁉
      もちろん()きよ‼ほんとにいい(せん)(せい)ですもの…
      Mochiron suki yo‼ Honto ni ii sensei desu mono…
      Of course‼ He’s a very good teacher…
      オラもすきだあ。んでも、(せん)(せい)(せん)(せい)だあ…オラの()っちゃにはなれねえ!
      Ora mo suki dā. N demo, Sensei wa Sensei dā… Ora no totcha ni wa narenē!
      Ah like him, too. But Sensei’s only Sensei… He could never be mah pa!
      え…⁉それ…ひょっとして、(わたくし)()()(がし)(せん)(せい)(けっ)(こん)するってこと……⁉
      E…⁉ Sore… hyotto shite, watakushi to Yaegashi Sensei ga kekkon surutte koto……⁉
      What…⁉ Wait… You think I’m gonna marry Yaegawa Sensei……⁉
  4. sensei (Japanese martial arts teacher)
  5. sir, a polite form of address to teachers, doctors, etc.

Usage notes[edit]

  • This is a term of respect, reserved only for speaking about others, and considered somewhat impolite (immodest) to use when referring to oneself. Instead, the term 教師 (kyōshi, teacher, literally teaching + teacher) is considered more socially appropriate when referring to oneself.
  • This is an example of a word that can be spelled with katakana to convey an informal conversational tone, as センセー.

Descendants[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

先生(せんせい) (-sensei

  1. a title used after the name of teachers, doctors, lawyers, or certain other professionals

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

先生 (seonsaeng) (hangeul 선생)

  1. Hanja form? of 선생 (teacher).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Noun[edit]

先生

  1. Hán tự form of tiên sinh.