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See also:
U+51CC, 凌
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51CC

[U+51CB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51CD]
U+F955, 凌
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F955

[U+F954]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F956]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
凌-red.png

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 15, +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈一土金水 (IMGCE), four-corner 34147, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 132, character 45
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1669
  • Dae Jaweon: page 297, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 298, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51CC

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
淩 not usually used for “ice”

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *rɯŋ): semantic (ice) + phonetic (OC *rɯŋ).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-p(w)am (to freeze; snow) (provisionally reconstructed) (STEDT).

Insides Sinitic, (OC *p.rəŋ ~ [r]əŋ) is cognate with (OC *p.rəŋ), (OC *pʰˁaŋ) "heavy snowfall", (OC *qraŋ, “*ʔraŋ”) "snowflake, sleet", & possibly also (OC [ŋ](r)əŋ) "to congeal" (STEDT; Baxter and Sagart, 2014);
Outsides Sinitic, cognate with Proto-Tani *pam (snow), Japhug jpɣom (to freeze), tɤjpɣom (ice) (STEDT; Zhang, Jacques, and Lai, 2019).

Alternatively, (OC *prjəŋ ~ prəŋ?) and (OC *b-rjəŋ ~ rəŋ) may be related to Khmer ប្រឹង (preṅa, to harden; to solidify) from [script needed] (reṅa, to dry up), although the meanings are difficult to reconcile (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (133)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɨŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/lieŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/liŋ/
Li
Rong
/liəŋ/
Wang
Li
/lĭəŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯əŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
líng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ling4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
líng líng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ling › ‹ ling ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]əŋ/ /*p.rəŋ/
English transgress; attack ice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8244
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rɯŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. ice
  2. to rise high; to go up; to climb over; to traverse
    alt. forms:
  3. to place oneself above; to override; to transgress
    alt. forms:
  4. to ride (wind, etc.)
  5. to bully and humiliate; to insult; to encroach on; to invade
    alt. forms:
  6. to risk; to brave
  7. to approach; to draw near; to close in on
  8. to tremble
  9. disorderly; messy
  10. A surname​.
      ―  Líng Méngchū  ―  Ling Mengchu (Ming dynasty Chinese writer)

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. to freeze up; to form ice

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. endure
  2. keep (rain) out
  3. stave off
  4. tide over
  5. defy
  6. slight
  7. surpass

Readings[edit]

  • On (unclassified): りょう (ryō)
  • Kun: しのぐ (shinogu, 凌ぐ)

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC lɨŋ).

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 업신여길 (eopsinyeogil reung), South Korea 업신여길 (eopsinyeogil neung))
(eumhun 능가할 (neunggahal reung), South Korea 능가할 (neunggahal neung))

  1. Hanja form? of (to place oneself above; to override).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: lăng, lăn, lâng, lừng, rưng, dưng

  1. Surname