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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
北-oracle.svg 北-bronze.svg 北-silk.svg 北-bigseal.svg 北-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) - two men back to back. Originally meaning "back".

Phonetically borrowed for the meaning of "north". The derivative refers to the original word.

Han character[edit]

(radical 21 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中一心 (LMP), four-corner 11110)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Japanese stroke order
北-jbw.png
  • KangXi: page 152, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2574
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 262, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5317

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pei²¹⁴/
Harbin /pei²¹³/
Tianjin /pei¹³/
Jinan /pei²¹³/
Qingdao /pe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /pei²⁴/
Xi'an /pei²¹/
Xining /pɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /pia¹³/
/pɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /pə¹³/
Ürümqi /pei²¹³/
Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /pe³¹/
Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
Kunming /pə³¹/
Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pei⁵³/
Pingyao /pʌʔ¹³/ ~城
/piʌʔ¹³/ ~面面
Hohhot /piəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /poʔ⁵/
Suzhou /poʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /poʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /pai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /peʔ²¹/
Tunxi /pi⁵/
Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /pɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /pet̚¹/
Taoyuan /pet̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pɐk̚⁵/
Nanning /pɐk̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pɐk̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pɔk̚³²/
/pak̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pɔyʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /pak̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbak̚⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pək̚/ /pək̚/ /pək̚/ /pək̚/ /pək̚/ /pək̚/ /pək̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
běi ‹ pok › /*pˤək/ north

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
414 0 /*pɯːɡ/

Noun[edit]

  1. north, northern

Coordinate terms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. north

Readings[edit]

Kanji in this term
きた
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きた, romaji kita)

  1. north

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きた, romaji Kita)

  1. A surname​.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(buk, bae)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (revised: buk, bae, McCune-Reischauer: puk, pae, Yale: pwuk, pay)
  • Name (hangeul): 북녘, 달아나다 (revised: bungnyeok, dalanada, McCune-Reischauer: pungnyŏk, talanada, Yale: puknyekh, tal.anata)
  1. the north, the northern part
  2. (figuratively) North Korea (used in news media)

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 ‎(nishi, west).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

  1. north

Derived terms[edit]


Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 ‎(nishi, west).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

  1. north

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bắc, bác, bấc, bậc, bước)

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