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U+5317, 北
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5317

[U+5316]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5318]
U+F963, 北
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F963

[U+F962]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F964]
北 U+2F82B, 北
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F82B
匆
[U+2F82A]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 卉
[U+2F82C]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order (Japan)
0 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 21, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中一心 (LMP), four-corner 11110, composition ⿲⿱(GJKV) or ⿰⿱⿰(HT))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 152, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2574
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 262, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5317

Further reading[edit]


Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𧉥
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Wu)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
北-oracle.svg 北-bronze.svg 北-silk.svg 北-seal.svg 北-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – two men back to back. Originally meaning “back”; the character (OC *pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs) refers to the original word.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ba (to carry (on back), shoulder).

The sense of “north” is derived from “back (of body)”: “back” → “to turn the back to; to retreat” → “north”.

The ancient Chinese value the southern direction and houses are traditionally oriented along a north-south axis, as evident in the fengshui theory and orientation of buildings in Chinese Neolithic sites. North is the direction the back is oriented to when the person is facing south.

Compare the graphical origin of (OC *nuːm, “south”) (Sagart, 1988).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • pak - vernacular;
  • pok - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pei²¹⁴/
    Harbin /pei²¹³/
    Tianjin /pei¹³/
    Jinan /pei²¹³/
    Qingdao /pe⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /pei²⁴/
    Xi'an /pei²¹/
    Xining /pɨ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /pia¹³/
    /pɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /pə¹³/
    Ürümqi /pei²¹³/
    Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /pe³¹/
    Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
    Kunming /pə³¹/
    Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pei⁵³/
    Pingyao /pʌʔ¹³/ ~城
    /piʌʔ¹³/ ~面面
    Hohhot /piəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /poʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /poʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /poʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /pai²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /peʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /pi⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /pɛt̚⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /pet̚¹/
    Taoyuan /pet̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pɐk̚⁵/
    Nanning /pɐk̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /pɐk̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pɔk̚³²/
    /pak̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pɔyʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pak̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbak̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (131)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pək̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pək̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pək̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /pək̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /pək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /pək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    bo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    běi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pok ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pˁək/
    English north

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 414
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pɯːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. north; northern
    2. to be defeated; to fail

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    • (compass points)
    西北 東北
    西 Compass rose simple plain.svg
    西南 東南


    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ほく) (hoku)
    • Korean: (, buk)
    • Vietnamese: bắc ()

    Others:

    • Japanese: (ペー) (, north wind (mahjong tile))

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (bèi, “back; to betray”).

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. north
    2. escape, run away

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きた
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Possibly from Old Japanese.

    Ultimate derivation unknown.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (きた) (kita

    1. north (cardinal point)
      • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 9, poem 412)
        (きた)()(かり)()くなるつれてこし(かず)はたらでぞかへるべらなる
        kita e yuku kari zo nakunaru tsurete koshi kazu wa tarade zo kaeruberanaru
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Antonym: (minami)
    2. the North (northern part of a region)
    3. a northerly, north wind
      Synonym: 北風 (kitakaze, hokufū)
      Antonym: (minami)
    4. Short for 北の方 (kita no kata): northward
    5. a developed country
      from the many countries in the Northern Hemisphere are considered developed
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    • (compass points)
    西北(せいほく) (seihoku)/北西(ほくせい) (hokusei) (きた) (kita) 東北(とうほく) (tōhoku)/北東(ほくとう) (hokutō)
    西(にし) (nishi) Compass rose simple plain.svg (ひがし) (higashi)
    西南(せいなん) (seinan)/南西(なんせい) (nansei) (みなみ) (minami) 東南(とうなん) (tōnan)/南東(なんとう) (nantō)


    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (きた) (Kita

    1. Kita (one of 23 special wards in Tokyo prefecture, Japan)
    2. (historical) the red-light district north of Edo Castle
      Synonyms: 北郭 (Hokkaku), 北国 (Hokkoku)
    3. a surname
    4. a female given name

    Verb[edit]

    (きた)する (kita surusuru (stem (きた) (kita shi), past (きた)した (kita shita))

    1. to go northwards
      Synonym: 北進する (hokushin suru)
    Conjugation[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Mandarin (běi).

    Noun[edit]

    (ペー) (

    1. (mahjong) north wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of north wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 북녘 (bungnyeok buk))

    1. Hanja form? of (north).

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 달아날 (daranal bae))

    1. Hanja form? of (to escape; flee).

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    にし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 (nishi, west).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana にし, rōmaji nishi)

    1. north; northern; northwards

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    • ニシ” in Haisai Okinawan Dialect.
    • にし【北】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • ニシ(にし)” in Okinawan Dialect Dictionary - Ajima.
    • にし” in Okinawan Dictionary - KozaWeb.
    • ニシ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 (nishi, west).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana にし, rōmaji nishi)

    1. north; northern; northwards

    References[edit]

    • にし【北】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (bắc, bác, bấc, bậc, bước)

    1. north