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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 21 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中一心 (LMP), four-corner 11110, composition)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Japanese stroke order
北-jbw.png
  • KangXi: page 152, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2574
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 262, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5317

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
北-oracle.svg 北-bronze.svg 北-silk.svg 北-bigseal.svg 北-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – two men back to back. Originally meaning “back”; the character (OC *pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs) refers to the original word.

Etymology[edit]

The sense of “north” is derived from “back (of body)”: “back” > “to turn the back to; to retreat” > “north”.

The ancient Chinese value the southern direction and houses are traditionally oriented along a north-south axis, as evident in the fengshui theory and orientation of buildings in Chinese Neolithic sites. North is the direction the back is oriented to when the person is facing south.

Compare the graphical origin of (OC *nuːm, “south”) (Sagart, 1988).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pei²¹⁴/
Harbin /pei²¹³/
Tianjin /pei¹³/
Jinan /pei²¹³/
Qingdao /pe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /pei²⁴/
Xi'an /pei²¹/
Xining /pɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /pia¹³/
/pɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /pə¹³/
Ürümqi /pei²¹³/
Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /pe³¹/
Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
Kunming /pə³¹/
Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pei⁵³/
Pingyao /pʌʔ¹³/ ~城
/piʌʔ¹³/ ~面面
Hohhot /piəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /poʔ⁵/
Suzhou /poʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /poʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /pai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /peʔ²¹/
Tunxi /pi⁵/
Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /pɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /pet̚¹/
Taoyuan /pet̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pɐk̚⁵/
Nanning /pɐk̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pɐk̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pɔk̚³²/
/pak̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pɔyʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /pak̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbak̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (131)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pək̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pək̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pək̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pək̚/
Li
Rong
/pək̚/
Wang
Li
/pək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
běi
Middle
Chinese
‹ pok ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˤək/
English north

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 414
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pɯːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. north; northern

Coordinate terms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. north

Readings[edit]

Kanji in this term
きた
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きた, romaji kita)

  1. north

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きた, romaji Kita)

  1. A surname​.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(buk, bae)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (McCune-Reischauer: puk, pae, Yale: pwuk, pay)
  • Name (hangeul): 북녘, 달아나다 (revised: bungnyeok, dalanada, McCune-Reischauer: pungnyŏk, talanada, Yale: puknyekh, tal.anata)
  1. the north, the northern part
  2. (figuratively) North Korea (used in news media)

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 ‎(nishi, west).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

  1. north

Derived terms[edit]


Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Kanji[edit]

‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese 西 ‎(nishi, west).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

  1. north

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bắc, bác, bấc, bậc, bước)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.