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U+5343, 千
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5343

[U+5342]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5344]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
千-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 24, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 竹十 (HJ), four-corner 20400, composition丿)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 155, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2697
  • Dae Jaweon: page 351, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 59, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5343

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
千-oracle.svg 千-bronze.svg 千-silk.svg 千-seal.svg 千-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sn̥ʰiːn): semantic (one, signifying a number) + phonetic (OC *njin). The Old Chinese pronunciations of (OC *sn̥ʰiːn) and (OC *njin) were similar. For the component , compare its combining form .

The traditional explanation holds that the extra line indicates an extension (see the etymologies of and ). has the meaning one thousand because one thousand is a number that is reached by extending one's counting.

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial

Unclear. Schuessler (2007) notes similar forms in Mon-Khmer, though their initials and finals do not match Old Chinese; compare Vietnamese nghìn and Old Mon lṅim (whence Mon လ္ၚီ (ŋìm)), all meaning "thousand". Also compare Proto-Hlai *C-ŋin.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chheng/chhuiⁿ - vernacular;
  • chhian - literary.
Note:
  • cain1 - Huilai, Jieyang, Chaoyang;
  • coin1 - other places.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰiã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰiã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰien³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰiɪ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰiẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰi³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰiẽ³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰiẽ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰien²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin⁵³/
    Nanning /t͡sʰin⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰin⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰian⁵⁵/
    /t͡sʰiŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰieŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰaiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰõi³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sin²³/
    /sai²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰen/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qiān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.n̥ˁi[ŋ]/
    English thousand

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10792
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sn̥ʰiːn/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. thousand
    2. many; numerous
    3. very
    See also[edit]
    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (せん) (sen)
    • Korean: (, cheon)
    • Vietnamese: thiên ()

    Others:

    • Zhuang: cien (thousand)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is the simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰen).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (せん) (sen

    1. a thousand, 1000
    Derived terms[edit]
    Japanese numerical compounds with (せん) (sen)
    1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 Thousands of
    (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    ()(せん) (nisen) (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (よん)(せん) (yonsen) ()(せん) (gosen) (ろく)(せん) (rokusen) (なな)(せん) (nanasen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (きゅう)(せん) (kyūsen) (なん)(ぜん) (nanzen)
    (すう)(せん) (sūsen)
    Idioms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (せん) (sen

    1. thousand
    2. (by extension) very large number
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (せん) (Sen

    1. a surname, especially from the line of tea ceremony masters

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ti⟩/t͡ɕi/

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    () (chi

    1. a thousand, 1000
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰen).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: chyèn)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 즈〮믄〮 (Yale: cúmún) (Yale: chyèn)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 일천(一千) (ilcheon cheon))

    1. Hanja form? of (thousand).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *ti. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Numeral[edit]

    (ti) (kana )

    1. a thousand, 1000
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 12, poem 3059), text here
        百爾爾人者雖言月草之移情吾將持八方
        momo ni ti ni pi1to2 pa ipu to2 mo tuki2kusa no2 uturo2pu ko2ko2ro2 ware motame2 ya mo
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (chi)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thiên ((thương)(tiên)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: thiên[1][2][4][6], xiên[1]

    1. Hán tự form of thiên (thousand).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]