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U+5343, 千
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5343

[U+5342]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5344]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
千-order.gif
Stroke order
3 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 24, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 竹十 (HJ), four-corner 20400, composition丿)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 155, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2697
  • Dae Jaweon: page 351, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 59, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5343

Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms financial

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
千-oracle.svg 千-bronze.svg 千-silk.svg 千-seal.svg 千-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn, *sn̥ʰiːns
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*njin
*njin
*njin
*neːŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sn̥ʰiːn): semantic  (one, signifying a number) + phonetic  (OC *njin). The Old Chinese pronunciations of (OC *sn̥ʰiːn) and (OC *njin) were similar. For the component , compare its combining form .

The traditional explanation holds that the extra line indicates an extension (see the etymologies of and ). has the meaning one thousand because one thousand is a number that is reached by extending one's counting.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chheng/chhuiⁿ - vernacular;
  • chhian - literary.
Note:
  • coin1 - Chaozhou;
  • cain1 - Huilai.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰiã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰiã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰien³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰiɪ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰiẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰi³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰiẽ³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰiẽ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰien²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin⁵³/
    Nanning /t͡sʰin⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰin⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰian⁵⁵/
    /t͡sʰiŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰieŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰaiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰõi³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sin²³/
    /sai²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰen/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qiān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.n̥ˤi[ŋ]/
    English thousand

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10792
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sn̥ʰiːn/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. thousand
    2. many; numerous
    3. very
    See also[edit]
    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is the simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (tshen, thousand).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji chi)

    1. thousand

    Derived terms[edit]

    Number[edit]

    (hiragana せん, rōmaji sen)

    1. thousand

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (cheon)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thiên)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.