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U+5357, 南
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5357

[U+5356]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5358]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 24, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十月廿十 (JBTJ), four-corner 40227, composition𢆉)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 157, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 357, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 65, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5357

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script
南-oracle.svg 南-bronze.svg 南-bronze-spring.svg 南-bronze-warring.svg 南-silk.svg 南-slip.svg 南-ancient.svg 南-seal.svg

This character has been explained as a pictogram (象形) of a hanging percussion instrument, originally identical to the left side of 㱿. Under this hypothesis its borrowing for the word “south” is difficult to explain.

Sagart (1988) instead proposes that it is a pictogram of the front of a house. Archaeological evidence confirms that in antiquity, at least in some regions, houses were built to face south.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-nam (sky, sun) (STEDT; Schuessler (2007); Benedict (1972)); the south is traditionally associated with the sun & light, compare (OC *laŋ, “light, sun-lit south-side of a hill”).

If so, cognate with Tibetan གནམ (gnam, sky), ནམ (nam, night), Tshangla ngam (sun, noon, day, sky), Chepang न्‍याम्‌ (nyam, sun, sunlight, storm-cloud, weather).

Alternatively, Sagart (2004) relates this word to Old Chinese *nɨm (revised to *nˤ[ə]m in 2014) "belly, front of the body", further "south" to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-nam (rib(s)), as one term for one body-part often shifts its meaning to another body-part nearby.

If so, is cognate with (OC *njɯms, “to carry inside one's belly → to be pregnant”), (OC *njɯm, *njɯms, “to carry a burden, especially in front of the body”), also (OC *nuːmʔ, “belly (of an ox)”), Southern Pumi nõ⁵⁵, Burmese နံရိုး (nam-rui:, side of the body, rib), and thus is a semantic counterpart to (OC *pɯːɡ, “north”), which is related to (OC *pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs, “back of the body”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lam5 - Chaozhou, Raoping;
  • nam5 - Shantou, Chaoyang, Jieyang;
  • nang5 - Chenghai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nan³⁵/
    Harbin /nan²⁴/
    Tianjin /nan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /nã⁴²/
    Qingdao /nã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /nan⁴²/
    Xi'an /nã²⁴/
    Xining /nã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /nan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /nan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nan²¹³/
    Chengdu /nan³¹/
    Guiyang /nan²¹/
    Kunming /nã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /næ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /nɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /næ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /nø²³/
    Suzhou /nø¹³/
    Hangzhou /nẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /nø³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
    Xiangtan /nan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /nam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /nɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nam²¹/
    Nanning /nam²¹/
    Hong Kong /nam²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lam³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /naŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /naŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (159)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəm/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀm/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /năm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nom ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁ[ə]m/
    English south

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9355
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. south; southern

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    • (compass points)
    西北 東北
    西 Compass rose simple plain.svg
    西南 東南


    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (なん) (nan)
    • Okinawan:  (なん) (nan)
    • Korean: (, nam)
    • Vietnamese: nam ()

    Others:

    • Japanese: (ナン) (nan, south wind (mahjong tile))

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 南無南无 (nāmó).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みなみ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    ⟨mi1nami1 → */mʲinamʲɨ//minami/

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    (Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

    Noun[edit]

    (みなみ) (minami

    1. the south (cardinal point)
      • c. 762, Shōsōin Man'yōgana Monjo[3]
        和可夜之奈比乃可波利爾波(わがやしなひのかはりには)於保末之末須(おほまします)美奈美(みなみ)乃末知奈流(のまちなる)(やつこ)乎宇氣與止(をうけよと)... [Man'yōgana]
        ()(やしな)ひの(かは)りには、おほ()します、(みなみ)(まち)なる(やつこ)()けよと... [Modern spelling]
        waga yashinai no kawari ni wa, ōmashimasu, minami no machi naru yatsuko o ukeyo to...
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Antonym: (kita)
    2. a southerly, south wind
      Synonym: 南風 (minamikaze, hae)
      Antonym: (kita)
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    • (compass points)
    西北(せいほく) (seihoku)/北西(ほくせい) (hokusei) (きた) (kita) 東北(とうほく) (tōhoku)/北東(ほくとう) (hokutō)
    西(にし) (nishi) Compass rose simple plain.svg (ひがし) (higashi)
    西南(せいなん) (seinan)/南西(なんせい) (nansei) (みなみ) (minami) 東南(とうなん) (tōnan)/南東(なんとう) (nantō)


    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (みなみ) (Minami

    1. (historical) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo (as it was located south of Edo Castle)
    2. the name of a ward in various cities throughout Japan, especially a former ward in the city of Osaka which is now part of Chūō Ward
    3. a female given name
    4. a surname

    Verb[edit]

    (みなみ)する (minami surusuru (stem (みなみ) (minami shi), past (みなみ)した (minami shita))

    1. (archaic) to go south
      • 1789, Seikashū (haikai by Takai Kitō)
        紅楓(もみぢ)(ふか)し、みなみし西(にし)す、(みづ)(すみ)
        momiji fukashi, minami shi nishi su, mizu no sumi
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    Conjugation[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みんなみ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    /minami//minːami/

    Appears in The Pillow Book, completed in 1002.

    Alteration of minami.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Noun[edit]

    (みんなみ) (minnami

    1. (archaic) the south

    Proper noun[edit]

    (みんなみ) (Minnami

    1. (historical, archaic) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なん
    Grade: 2
    goon

    /namʉ//naɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC nʌm).

    Noun[edit]

    (なん) (nan

    1. the south
      Synonym: 南方 (nanpō)
    2. Short for 南鐐 (nanryō): beautiful silver; a type of silver coin in the Edo period
    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (なん) (nan

    1. south, southern
    2. Used in Sanskrit transliterations
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (なん) (Nan

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Mandarin (nán).

    Noun[edit]

    (ナン) (nan

    1. (mahjong) south wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of south wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ Takeuchi, Rizō (1962) Nara Ibun: Volume 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō Shuppan, →ISBN.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 남녘 (namnyeok nam))

    1. south; southern

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ふぇー
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate to Yonaguni (hai, south, southerly) and western Japanese 南風 (hae, southerly winds).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ふぇー, rōmaji )

    1. the south (cardinal point)
    2. a southerly (wind blowing from the south)

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ フェー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “Compound of (mi1, uncertain, possibly “sea” or “water) +‎ (na, apophonic form of attributive particle (no2)) +‎ (mi1, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem form) of verb 見る (mi1ru), “to look, see)?”

    Noun[edit]

    (mi1nami1) (kana みなみ)

    1. the south (cardinal point)
    2. a southerly (wind blowing from the south)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem 4106), text here
        ...吹雪消益而射水河流水沫能余留弊奈美...
        ...mi1nami1 puki1 yuki1ke2 *masarite Imi1du-gapa nagaru mi1nawa no2 yo2ru pe1 nami1...
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Usage notes[edit]

    Also used in the Man'yōshū (759 CE) as 借音 (shakuon) kana for ⟨na⟩ and 借訓 (shakkun) kana for ⟨namu⟩.

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (minami)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: nam

    Adjective[edit]

    (nam)

    1. south, southern

    References[edit]


    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate to Okinawan (, south, southerly) and western Japanese 南風 (hae, southerly winds).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana はい, romaji hai)

    1. the south (cardinal point)
    2. a southerly (wind blowing from the south)

    References[edit]