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U+5357, 南
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5357

[U+5356]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5358]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 24, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十月廿十 (JBTJ), four-corner 40227, composition𢆉)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 157, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 357, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 65, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5357

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script
南-oracle.svg 南-bronze.svg 南-bronze-spring.svg 南-bronze-warring.svg 南-silk.svg 南-slip.svg 南-ancient.svg 南-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuːm
*nuːm
*nuːmʔ
*nuːmʔ
*nuːmʔ
*nuːmʔ
*ruːmʔ
*rnuːm
*rnuːm, *rnuːms

This character has been explained as a pictogram (象形) of a hanging percussion instrument, originally identical to the left side of 㱿. Under this hypothesis its borrowing for the word “south” is difficult to explain.

Sagart (1988) instead proposes that it is a pictogram of the front of a house. Archaeological evidence confirms that in antiquity, at least in some regions, houses were built to face south.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • lam5 - Chaozhou, Raoping;
  • nam5 - Shantou, Chaoyang, Jieyang;
  • nang5 - Chenghai.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nan³⁵/
    Harbin /nan²⁴/
    Tianjin /nan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /nã⁴²/
    Qingdao /nã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /nan⁴²/
    Xi'an /nã²⁴/
    Xining /nã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /nan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /nan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nan²¹³/
    Chengdu /nan³¹/
    Guiyang /nan²¹/
    Kunming /nã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /næ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /nɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /næ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /nø²³/
    Suzhou /nø¹³/
    Hangzhou /nẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /nø³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
    Xiangtan /nan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /nam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /nɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nam²¹/
    Nanning /nam²¹/
    Hong Kong /nam²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lam³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /naŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /naŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (159)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəm/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀm/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /năm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nom ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁ[ə]m/
    English south

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9355
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. south; southern
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    • (dōng): East; Eastern
    • 西 (): West; Western
    • (běi): North; Northern

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Buddhism) Only used in 南無南无 (námó).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. south
    2. kanji used to transliterate Buddhist terms borrowed from Sanskrit

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    Used in the Man'yōshū (759 CE) as 借音 (shakuon) kana for ⟨na⟩ and 借訓 (shakkun) kana for ⟨namu⟩.

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    みなみ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨mi1nami1 → */mʲinamʲɨ//minami/

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    (Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana みなみ, rōmaji minami)

    1. south (cardinal point)
      • c. 762, Shōsōin Man'yōgana Monjo[3]
         () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () (やつこ) () () () () ()... [Man'yōgana]
         () (やしな)ひの (かは)りには、おほ ()します、 (みなみ) (まち)なる (やつこ) ()けよと... [Modern spelling]
        waga yashinai no kawari ni wa, ōmashimasu, minami no machi naru yatsuko o ukeyo to...
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Antonym: (kita)
    2. south wind, southerly
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem 4106), text here
        ... (みなみ) (ふき)雪消 (ゆきげは) (ふり) () ()水河 (みづかは) (ながる)水沫 (みなわ) () () () () () ()... [Man'yōgana]
        ... (みなみ) () (ゆき) ()はふりて () (みづ) (がは) (なが)水沫 (みなわ) ()るへ ()み... [Modern spelling]
        ...minami fuki yukige wa furite Imizu-gawa nagaru minawa no yoru e nami...
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Synonym: 南風 (minamikaze, hae)
      Antonym: (kita)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana みなみ, katakana ミナミ, rōmaji Minami)

    1. (historical) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo
      as it was located south of Edo Castle
    2. the name of a ward in various cities throughout Japan, especially a former ward in the city of Osaka which is now part of Chūō Ward
    3. a female given name
    4. a surname

    Verb[edit]

    する (hiragana みなみする, rōmaji minami suru)

    1. (archaic) to go south
      • 1789, Seikashū (haikai by Takai Kitō)
        紅楓 (もみぢ) (ふか)し、みなみし西 (にし)す、 (みづ) (すみ)
        momiji fukashi, minami shi nishi su, mizu no sumi
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    Conjugation[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みんなみ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    /minami//minːami/

    Appears in The Pillow Book, completed in 1002.

    Alteration of minami.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana みんなみ, rōmaji minnami)

    1. (archaic) south (cardinal point)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana みんなみ, rōmaji Minnami)

    1. (historical, archaic) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なん
    Grade: 2
    goon

    /nam//namʉ//naɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC nʌm).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana なん, rōmaji nan)

    1. south (cardinal point)
      Synonym: 南方 (nanpō)
    2. Short for 南鐐 (nanryō): beautiful silver; a type of silver coin in the Edo period
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana なん, rōmaji Nan)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Mandarin (nán).

    Noun[edit]

    (katakana ナン, rōmaji nan)

    1. (mahjong) south wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of south wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ Takeuchi, Rizō (1962) Nara Ibun: Volume 3 (in ja), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō Shuppan, →ISBN.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (nam)

    1. south; southern

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: nam, na

    Adjective[edit]

    (nam)

    1. south, southern

    References[edit]