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U+5357, 南
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5357

[U+5356]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5358]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 24, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十月廿十 (JBTJ), four-corner 40227, composition𢆉)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 157, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 357, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 65, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5357

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script
南-oracle.svg 南-bronze.svg 南-bronze-spring.svg 南-bronze-warring.svg 南-silk.svg 南-slip.svg 南-ancient.svg 南-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuːm
*nuːm
*nuːmʔ
*nuːmʔ
*nuːmʔ
*nuːmʔ
*ruːmʔ
*rnuːm
*rnuːm, *rnuːms

This character has been explained as a pictogram (象形) of a hanging percussion instrument, originally identical to the left side of 㱿. Under this hypothesis its borrowing for the word “south” is difficult to explain.

Sagart (1988) instead proposes that it is a pictogram of the front of a house. Archaeological evidence confirms that in antiquity, at least in some regions, houses were built to face south.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • lam5 - Chaozhou, Raoping;
  • nam5 - Shantou, Chaoyang, Jieyang;
  • nang5 - Chenghai.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nan³⁵/
    Harbin /nan²⁴/
    Tianjin /nan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /nã⁴²/
    Qingdao /nã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /nan⁴²/
    Xi'an /nã²⁴/
    Xining /nã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /nan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /nan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nan²¹³/
    Chengdu /nan³¹/
    Guiyang /nan²¹/
    Kunming /nã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /næ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /nɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /næ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /nø²³/
    Suzhou /nø¹³/
    Hangzhou /nẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /nø³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
    Xiangtan /nan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /nam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /nɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nam²¹/
    Nanning /nam²¹/
    Hong Kong /nam²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lam³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /naŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /naŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (159)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nʌm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nəm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɒm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nəm/
    Li
    Rong
    /nᴀm/
    Wang
    Li
    /nɒm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /năm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nom ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁ[ə]m/
    English south

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9355
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. south; southern
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    • (dōng): East; Eastern
    • 西 (): West; Western
    • (běi): North; Northern

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Buddhism) Only used in 南無南无 (námó).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. south

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みなみ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana みなみ, rōmaji minami)

    1. south
      • c. 762: Shōsōin Man'yōgana Monjo
        和可夜之奈比乃 可波利爾波 於保末之末須 美奈美乃末知奈流奴乎 宇氣與止 於保止己可都可佐乃比止伊布 之可流可由恵爾 序禮宇氣牟比止良 久流末毛太之米弖 末都利伊禮之米太末布日 與禮良毛伊太佐牟 之可毛己乃波古美於可牟毛 阿夜布可流 可由恵爾 波夜久末可利太末布日之 於保己可ツ可佐奈比氣奈波 比止乃太氣太可比止 □己止波宇氣都流

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana みなみ, rōmaji Minami)

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みんなみ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Alteration of minami.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana みんなみ, rōmaji minnami)

    1. south

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (nam)

    1. south; southern

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: nam, na

    Adjective[edit]

    (nam)

    1. south, southern

    References[edit]