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See also: (katakana), (hangul), and (wéi)
U+53E3, 口
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53E3

[U+53E2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53E4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
口-order.gif

Usage notes[edit]

This character (口) is used within characters; if a square is instead used as an enclosure (around) a character, then the character is used instead.

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 口 (R), four-corner 60000)

  1. Kangxi radical #30, .
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №22

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 171, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3227
  • Dae Jaweon: page 379, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 566, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+53E3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠙵
𠮚

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
口-oracle.svg 口-bronze.svg 口-silk.svg 口-bigseal.svg 口-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰoːʔ
*kʰoːʔ
*kʰoːʔ, *kʰoːs
*kʰoːʔ
*kʰoːs

Pictogram (象形) – resembles an open mouth.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kou2 - vernacular;
  • kou3 - literary.
Note:
  • kháu - vernacular;
  • káu - vernacular (limited, e.g. 啞口);
  • khó͘/khió - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰou²¹⁴/
Harbin /kʰou²¹³/
Tianjin /kʰou¹³/
Jinan /kʰou⁵⁵/
Qingdao /kʰou⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kʰou⁵³/
Xi'an /kʰou⁵³/
Xining /kʰɯ⁵³/
Yinchuan /kʰəu⁵³/
Lanzhou /kʰou⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /kʰɤu⁵¹/
Wuhan /kʰəu⁴²/
Chengdu /kʰəu⁵³/
Guiyang /kʰəu⁴²/
Kunming /kʰəu⁵³/
Nanjing /kʰəɯ²¹²/
Hefei /kʰɯ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰəu⁵³/
Pingyao /kʰəu¹³/
Hohhot /kʰəu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /kʰɤ³⁵/
Suzhou /kʰɤ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /kʰø⁵³/
Wenzhou /kʰau³⁵/
Hui Shexian /kʰiu³⁵/
Tunxi /t͡ɕʰiu³¹/
Xiang Changsha /kʰəu⁴¹/
Xiangtan /kʰəɯ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /kʰiɛu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /kʰeu³¹/
Taoyuan /kʰeu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐu³⁵/
Nanning /hɐu³⁵/
Hong Kong /hɐu³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔ⁵³/
/kʰau⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰau³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰe²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰau⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xɔu²¹³/
/xau²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (29)
Final () (137)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰəuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰəuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰəwX/
Li
Rong
/kʰuX/
Wang
Li
/kʰəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
kǒu
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
kǒu
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˤ(r)oʔ/
English mouth

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7490
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰoːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (anatomy) mouth (Classifier: c)
      ―  Shù shù nǐ de kǒu.  ―  Rinse your mouth out.
  2. entrance; opening; mouth (of an object)
      ―  kǒu  ―  entrance
      ―  chūkǒu  ―  exit
  3. hole; cut
      ―  kǒuzi  ―  hole
    /   ―  shāngkǒu  ―  wound
  4. government organ; department
  5. Classifier for family members, populations and guns.
  6. Classifier for bites or mouthfuls.
    可以 / 可以  ―  Wǒ kěyǐ chī yī kǒu ma?  ―  Can I have a bite?

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“mouth”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 嘴巴嘴巴子
Chengdu 嘴巴
Yangzhou 嘴巴子
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang 嘴巴
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou 嘴嘴
Xiang Changsha 嘴巴嘴巴子
Shuangfeng 嘴巴

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くつ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/kutu//kut͡su/

From Old Japanese. Appears in compound terms listed in the Wamyō Ruijushō of 938 CE.

The ancient combining form of modern reading kuchi.[1] Likely the original form.

No longer productive in modern Japanese. Only found in older compounds.

There are interesting potential phonetic and semantic overlaps with Middle Chinese (MC kʰuət̚, “hole; cave”), (MC kʰəuX, “mouth; opening; hole”); Korean (gut), 굿 (gut, hole; hollow; cavity); possibly even Ainu クㇳ (kut), クッチ (kutchi, throat). One possibility is that these represent prehistoric nativized borrowings from Chinese. However, there is yet no clear evidence of relatedness.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Kun’yomi
    • IPA(key): [kɯ̟ᵝt͡sɨᵝ]
  • The pitch accent is derived from the entire compound word.

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くつ, rōmaji kutsu)

  1. mouth
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
くち
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

*/kutu i//kuti//kut͡ɕi/

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]

Shift from kutu above, probably by fusion with ancient nominal particle (i). Compare the phonetic development of (kami, spirit, god) from kamu + i, (ki, tree) from ko + i, (me, eye) from ma + i.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くち, rōmaji kuchi)

  1. mouth
    • 1999 July 22, “グレード・ビル [Great Bill]”, in Vol.4 (in Japanese), Konami:
      どんなものでも (まる) ()みできる (おお)きな (くち) ()っている。
      Donna mono de mo marunomi dekiru ōkina kuchi o motteiru.
      Its massive mouth can swallow whole anything whole.
  2. opening
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kʰəuX). The goon, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ku)

  1. (Buddhism) the mouth
  2. (Buddhism) (by extension) one's speech, one's words
  3. the mouthpiece of a flute

Counter[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji -ku)

  1. used to count people
  2. used to count per-person portions
  3. used to count open-mouthed containers
  4. used to count bladed weapons or tools

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kʰəuX). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

(hiragana こう, rōmaji -kō)

  1. used to count people
  2. used to count bladed weapons or tools

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3532), text here
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gu)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (McCune-Reischauer: ku)
    • Name (hangeul): (revised: ip, McCune-Reischauer: ip)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぐち, romaji guchi)

  1. language
  2. dialect
  3. speech

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khẩu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.