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See also: [U+56D7 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56D7], [U+30ED KATAKANA LETTER RO], and [U+3141 HANGUL LETTER MIEUM]
U+53E3, 口
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53E3

[U+53E2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53E4]
U+2F1D, ⼝
KANGXI RADICAL MOUTH

[U+2F1C]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F1E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
口-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 口 (R), four-corner 60000, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #30, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №22

Usage notes[edit]

This character () is used within characters. If a square is used as an enclosure around another character, then the character (U+56D7) is used instead.

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 171, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3227
  • Dae Jaweon: page 379, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 566, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+53E3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠙵
𠮚
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
口-bronze-shang.svg 口-oracle.svg 口-bronze.svg 口-silk.svg 口-seal.svg 口-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – resembles an open mouth.

In the oracle bone script, radical is used for characters having abstract meanings. Such a character can have a figurative meaning derived from the phonetic part, e.g. (OC *ɢʷɯʔ, *ɢʷɯs, “right”) = (OC *ɢʷɯs, “right hand”) + and 𪪺 (“strong; powerful”) = (OC *kʷɯŋ, “bow”) + , or be an unrelated borrowing, e.g. (OC *brɯʔ, *pɯʔ, “no”) = (OC *pɯ, *pɯʔ, *pɯ', “calyx”) + .

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ku(w) (mouth). Cognate with Garo ku·sik (mouth), Tangut 𗋈 (ngu², mouth).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • khiéu - literary;
    • héu - vernacular.
  • Meixian:
    • kêu3 - literary;
    • hêu3 - vernacular.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • kāu - vernacular;
    • kēu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kháu - vernacular;
    • káu - vernacular (limited, e.g. 啞口);
    • khó͘/khió - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰou²¹⁴/
    Harbin /kʰou²¹³/
    Tianjin /kʰou¹³/
    Jinan /kʰou⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /kʰou⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /kʰou⁵³/
    Xi'an /kʰou⁵³/
    Xining /kʰɯ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /kʰəu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /kʰou⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /kʰɤu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /kʰəu⁴²/
    Chengdu /kʰəu⁵³/
    Guiyang /kʰəu⁴²/
    Kunming /kʰəu⁵³/
    Nanjing /kʰəɯ²¹²/
    Hefei /kʰɯ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰəu⁵³/
    Pingyao /kʰəu¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰəu⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰɤ³⁵/
    Suzhou /kʰɤ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /kʰø⁵³/
    Wenzhou /kʰau³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /kʰiu³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕʰiu³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰəu⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /kʰəɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰiɛu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰeu³¹/
    Taoyuan /kʰeu³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐu³⁵/
    Nanning /hɐu³⁵/
    Hong Kong /hɐu³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔ⁵³/
    /kʰau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰau³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰe²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰau⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xɔu²¹³/
    /xau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰəuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰəuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kǒu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hau2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kǒu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰˁ(r)oʔ/
    English mouth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7490
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) mouth, especially the lips and internal mouth cavity (Classifier: c)
      See also: , 口腔
        ―  Shù shù nǐ de kǒu.  ―  Rinse your mouth out.
      出自聽來令人奇怪 [MSC, trad.]
      出自听来令人奇怪 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè huà chūzì nǐ de kǒu, tīnglái lìngrén qíguài. [Pinyin]
      This sounds strange in your mouth.
    2. entrance; opening; mouth (of an object)
        ―  kǒu  ―  entrance
        ―  chūkǒu  ―  exit
      /   ―  ménkǒu  ―  doorway
    3. gateway
      張家 / 张家  ―  Zhāngjiākǒu  ―  Zhangjiakou
        ―  Kǒuběi  ―  the area beyond the Great Wall
        ―  kǒu  ―  St. George's mushroom (Calocybe gambosa)
    4. hole; cut
        ―  kǒuzi  ―  hole
      /   ―  shāngkǒu  ―  wound
    5. port
      電腦 / 电脑  ―  diànnǎo duānkǒu  ―  computer port
      C  ―  sēikǒu  ―  USB-C port
    6. perimeter
        ―  rénkǒu  ―  population
      /   ―  kǒu  ―  hukou
    7. government organ; department
    8. Classifier for family members, populations and guns.
        ―  sān kǒu zhī jiā  ―  a family of three
    9. Classifier for bites or mouthfuls.
      可以 / 可以  ―  Wǒ kěyǐ chī yī kǒu ma?  ―  Can I have a bite?
    10. (neologism, slang) to have oral sex
    11. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“name; given name; etc.”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くつ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kutu//kut͡su/

    From Old Japanese. Appears in compound terms listed in the Wamyō Ruijushō of 938 CE.

    The ancient combining form of modern reading kuchi.[1] Likely the original form.

    No longer productive in modern Japanese. Only found in older compounds.

    There are interesting potential phonetic and semantic overlaps with Middle Chinese (MC kʰuət̚, “hole; cave”), (MC kʰəuX, “mouth; opening; hole”); Korean (gut), 굿 (gut, hole; hollow; cavity); possibly even Ainu クㇳ (kut), クッチ (kutchi, throat). One possibility is that these represent prehistoric nativized borrowings from Chinese. However, there is yet no clear evidence of relatedness.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • The pitch accent is derived from the entire compound word.

    Noun[edit]

    (くつ) (kutsu

    1. mouth
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くち
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    */kutu i//kuti//kut͡ɕi/

    From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kutuy. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]

    Shift from kutu above, probably by fusion with ancient nominal particle (i). Compare the phonetic development of (kami, spirit, god) from kamu + i, (ki, tree) from ko + i, (me, eye) from ma + i.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くち) (kuchi

    1. mouth
      • 1999 July 22, “グレード・ビル [Great Bill]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
        どんなものでも(まる)()みできる(おお)きな(くち)()っている。
        Donna mono de mo marunomi dekiru ōkina kuchi o motteiru.
        Its massive mouth can swallow whole anything whole.
    2. opening
    3. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      ()(くち)
      kakikuchi
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰəuX). The 呉音 (goon), so likely the initial borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ku

    1. (Buddhism) the mouth
    2. (Buddhism) (by extension) one's speech, one's words
    3. the mouthpiece of a flute

    Counter[edit]

    () (-ku

    1. used to count people
    2. used to count per-person portions
    3. used to count open-mouthed containers
    4. used to count bladed weapons or tools

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰəuX). The 漢音 (kan'on), so likely a later borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (こう) (-kō

    1. used to count people
    2. used to count bladed weapons or tools

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3532), text here
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰəuX).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (in 口文, 口錢, and 口硬):
    • (mouth; entrance; hole; etc.):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ku(ː)]
      • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
        • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ip gu))

    1. Hanja form? of (mouth).
    2. Hanja form? of (entrance; opening).
    3. Hanja form? of (hole).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くちー, rōmaji khuchī)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Tarama): IPA(key): [ɸɨtˢɨ], [ɸs̩.tˢɨ]
    • (Ōgami): IPA(key): [ɸkɨ], [ɸks̩ ~ ɸkɯ]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ふつ, rōmaji futsu, alternative reading ふィちィ, rōmaji fïchï)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    References[edit]

    • ふィちィ【口】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • フツ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Miyako Dialect Dictionary.
    • ふつ” in Celik Kenan Thibault, Online Miyako Dictionary, 2016.

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くち, rōmaji kuchi)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • ぐち【口】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • クチ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: khẩu[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: khẩu[1][2]

    1. Hán tự form of khẩu (mouth; opening).

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ふつぃ, rōmaji futsï)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ってぃ, rōmaji tti)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech